MB-System Unix Manual Page

mbareaclean

Section: MB-System 5.0 (1)
Updated: 29 September 2013
Index
 

NAME

mbareaclean - Tool to automatically flag bad beams in swath sonar bathymetry data within a specified area.

 

VERSION

Version 5.0

 

SYNOPSIS

mbareaclean -Rwest/east/south/north -Sbinsize [-Dthreshold -Fformat -Iinfile -B -G -H -Mthreshold[/nmin[/nmax]] -N[-]min_beam[/maxbeam] -Ttype -V]

 

DESCRIPTION

mbareaclean identifies and flags artifacts in swath sonar bathymetry data within a specified area of interest. The input data are one swath file or a datalist referencing multiple swath files. The user may specify the work area in longitude and latitude bounds, along with a bin size in meters. If these are not specified, the program will attempt to set useful values. The area is divided into a grid with square cells of the specified bin size. As the data are read, each of the soundings that fall within one of the bins is stored. Once all of data are read, one or more statistical tests are performed on the soundings within each bin, providing there are a sufficient number of soundings.

The user may specify one or both of the following actions:
  1) Previously unflagged soundings that fail a test are flagged as bad
  2) Previously flagged soundings that pass all tests are unflagged (the -G option)..

The edit events are output to edit save files which can be applied to the data by the program mbprocess. These are the same edit save files created and/or modified by mbclean and mbedit. If a sounding's flag status is changed, that flagging action is output to the edit save file of the swath file containing that sounding. This program will create edit save files if necessary, or append to those that already exist.

At present only two algorithms for identifying good and bad beams is implemented. The first is a simple median filter controlled by the -Mthreshold/nmin[/nmax] option. Soundings that differ from the median depth by a value greater than threshold times the sonar altitude will be considered "bad". So, if threshold = 0.05, then any sounding that is 5% greater or less than the median depth will be considered bad. The nmin parameter sets the minimum number of soundings required to use the median filter. The nmax parameter sets the maximum number of soundings allowed within a cell. If the number of initially good beams in a cell exceeds nmax, then only the nmax soundings nearest the median value remain unflagged, and the rest are flagged even if they meet the threshold test. The default values are threshold = 0.25, nmin = 10, and nmax = infinite.

The second algorithm is a simple standard deviation filter controlled by the -Dthreshold/nmin option. Soundings that differ from the mean depth by a value greater than threshold times the standard deviation of the bin will be considered "bad". So, if threshold = 2, then any sounding that is more than 2 standard deviations greater or less than the mean depth will be considered bad. The nmin parameter sets the minimum number of soundings required to use the filter, The default values are threshold = 2.0 and nmin = 10.

Two options allow limiting the soundings that may be flagged. -N[-]min_beam/maxbeam limits flagging to only those beams in (or out) of the given range. -Ttype limits flagging to soundings using the specified bottom detection algorithm. Many sounders use amplitude detection algorithms for the central beams and phase detection algorithms for the outer beams, falling back to amplitude detection when phase detection fails. Amplitude detections in the outer beams are second rate soundings and frequently have a higher range of errors than other soundings. Using -N and -T together allows stricter cleaning algorithms to be applied to these lower quality data. For example to flag bad all amplitude detections in the outer thirty beams which are more than one standard deviation from the mean: -N-30 -T1 -D1.

 

MB-SYSTEM AUTHORSHIP

David W. Caress

  Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute
Dale N. Chayes

  Center for Coastal and Ocean Mapping

  University of New Hampshire
Christian do Santos Ferreira

  MARUM - Center for Marine Environmental Sciences

  University of Bremen

 

OPTIONS

-B

This option causes mbareaclean to flag as bad any previously unflagged soundings that fail one of the specified statistical tests. If neither -B or -G are specified, then the program will by default use this option.
-D
threshold[/nmin]
Turns on use of a standard deviation filter test for the soundings. Soundings that differ from the mean depth by a value greater than threshold times the standard deviation will be considered "bad". So, if threshold = 2.0, then any sounding that is twice the standard deviation from the mean depth will be considered bad. The nmin parameter sets the minimum number of soundings required to use the standard deviation filter. The default values are threshold = 2.0 and nmin = 10.
-F
format
Sets the data format used to read infile. If format < 0, then the input file specified with the -I option will actually contain a list of input swath sonar data files. This program uses the MBIO library and will read or write any swath sonar format supported by MBIO. A list of the swath sonar data formats currently supported by MBIO and their identifier values is given in the MBIO manual page. Default: format = 11.
-G
This option cause mbarealcean to unflag (set good) any previously flagged soundings that pass all of the specified statistical tests. If neither -B or -G are specified, then the program will by default apply the -B option.
-H
This "help" flag cause the program to print out a description of its operation and then exit immediately.
-I
infile
Sets the input filename. If format > 0 (set with the -F option) then the swath sonar data contained in infile is read and processed. If format < 0, then infile is assumed to be an ascii file containing a list of the input swath sonar data files to be processed and their formats. The program will read and process the data in all of these files. Each input file will have an associated output file with either the ".esf" suffix. In the infile file, each data file should be followed by a data format identifier, e.g.:
        datafile1 11

        datafile2 24

This program uses the MBIO library and will read or write any swath sonar format supported by MBIO. A list of the swath sonar data formats currently supported by MBIO and their identifier values is given in the MBIO manual page. Default: infile = "datalist.mb-1".
-M
threshold[/nmin]
Turns on use of a median filter test for the soundings. If no other test is specified, the median filter test is used by default. Soundings that differ from the median depth by a value greater than threshold times the sonar altitude will be considered "bad". So, if threshold = 0.05, then any sounding that is 5% greater or less than the median depth will be considered bad. The nmin parameter sets the minimum number of soundings required to use the median filter, The default values are threshold = 0.25 and nmin = 10.
-N
[-]min_beam[/max_beam]
Limits the beams to which flagging will be applied. Only soundings for beams from min_beam to max_beam, inclusive, will have flags applied. If min_beam is preceded by a - then only beams outside the range will be flagged. If max_beam is not given it will be set so that an equal number of beams lay above it as lay below min_beam. So for a Simrad EM1002 sounder with 111 beams -N-30 will only flag beam numbers 1 to 29 and 82 to 111. All good soundings, regardless of beam, will be included in the calculations of median, mean and standard deviation for the bin.
-R
west/east/south/north
Sets the longitude and latitude bounds within which swath sonar data will be read, binned, and tested. Soundings lying outside these bounds will be ignored.
Default: The program will determine and use a square area encompassing all of the data contained in the input files.
-S
binsize
Sets the size of the bins to be used in meters. The area specified with the -R option will be broken into a grid with cells that are roughly binsize meters east-west and north-south.
Default: A binsize equal to 0.2 times the maximum sonar altitude will be used.
-T
detect_type
Limits the soundings to which flagging will be applied to only those which use the specified bottom detection algorithm. detect_type must be one of:
      0 - unknown algorithm
      1 - amplitude detection
      2 - phase detection
-V
Normally, mbareaclean works "silently" without outputting anything to the stderr stream. If the -V flag is given, then mbareaclean works in a "verbose" mode and outputs the program version being used, all error status messages, and the number of beams flagged as bad.

 

EXAMPLES

Suppose we are working with a set of 5 Reson 8101 multibeam data files comprising a shallow water survey. One of these files has previously been edited with mbedit, so an esf file exists and contains a number of pre-existing edits. If we know that this survey is contained in the area specified by -R-122.42556/-122.41974/47.67111/47.67529, then we can invoke mbareaclean using:
        mbareaclean -Idatalist.mb-1 \

                -B -M0.1/10 -S2.5 \

                -R-122.42556/-122.41974/47.67111/47.67529  \

                -V

where the bin size is 2.5 meters, the median filter threshold is 0.1 (or 10%) of the sonar altitude, and the minimum number of sounding required for filtering is 10. The results look like:


 Program MBAREACLEAN
 Version $Id$
 MB-system Version 5.0.beta29
 Area of interest:
      Minimum Longitude: -122.425560 Maximum Longitude: -122.419740
      Minimum Latitude:  47.671110 Maximum Latitude:  47.675290
      Bin Size:   2.500000
      Dimensions: 175 186
 Cleaning algorithms:
      Median filter: ON
      Plane fit:     OFF
 Output:
      Flag unflagged soundings identified as bad:  ON
      Unflag flagged soundings identified as good: OFF


 Processing 001_1730.fbt
 Sorting 41580 old edits...
 10000 of 41580 old edits sorted...
 20000 of 41580 old edits sorted...
 30000 of 41580 old edits sorted...
 40000 of 41580 old edits sorted...
 pings:1169  beams:   20233 good   41686 flagged   56150 null


 Processing 003_1733.fbt
 pings: 991  beams:   52439 good     159 flagged   47493 null


 Processing 005_1736.fbt
 pings:1011  beams:   53080 good     588 flagged   48443 null


 Processing 007_1739.fbt
 pings: 922  beams:   48854 good     212 flagged   44056 null


 Processing 009_1741.fbt
 pings:1017  beams:   53416 good     586 flagged   48715 null


 MBareaclean Processing Totals:
 -------------------------
 5 total swath data files processed
 5110 total pings processed
 271253 total soundings processed
 -------------------------
   0 soundings:  61919 flagged:      0 unflagged:      0  file:001_1730
   1 soundings:  52598 flagged:      0 unflagged:      0  file:003_1733
   2 soundings:  53668 flagged:      0 unflagged:      0  file:005_1736
   3 soundings:  49066 flagged:      0 unflagged:      0  file:007_1739
   4 soundings:  54002 flagged:      0 unflagged:      0  file:009_1741

 

SEE ALSO

mbsystem(1), mbclean(1), mbedit(1), mbinfo(1) mbprocess(1),

 

BUGS

The algorithms implemented in mbareaclean simply don't detect all bathymetric artifacts that are obvious to the eye on contour charts. Although the autofiltering tools mbareaclean and mbclean often do a credible first pass at flagging obvious artifacts, we strongly recommend that any swath bathymetry processing stream include interactive editing of the bathymetry data (e.g. mbedit).


 

Index

NAME
VERSION
SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
MB-SYSTEM AUTHORSHIP
OPTIONS
EXAMPLES
SEE ALSO
BUGS


Last Updated: 29 September 2013