MB-System Unix Manual Page

mbio

Section: MB-System 5.0 (3)
Updated: 3 June 2013
Index

 

NAME

mbio - Format independent input/output library for swath mapping sonar data.

 

VERSION

Version 5.0

 

DESCRIPTION

MBIO (MultiBeam Input/Output) is a library of functions used for reading and writing swath mapping sonar data files. MBIO supports a large number of data formats associated with different institutions and different sonar systems. The purpose of MBIO is to allow users to write processing and display programs which are independent of particular data formats and to provide a standard approach to swath mapping sonar data i/o.

 

AUTHORSHIP

David W. Caress (caress@mbari.org)

  Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute
Dale N. Chayes (dale@ldeo.columbia.edu)

  Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory

 

DATA TERMINOLOGY

MBIO handles three types of swath mapping data: beam bathymetry, beam amplitude, and sidescan. Both amplitude and sidescan represent measures of backscatter strength. Beam amplitudes are backscatter values associated with the same preformed beams used to obtain bathymetry; MBIO assumes that a bathymetry value exists for each amplitude value and uses the bathymetry beam location for the amplitude. Sidescan is generally constructed with a higher spatial resolution than bathymetry, and carries its own location parameters. In the context of MB-System documentation, the discrete values of bathymetry and amplitude are referred to as "beams", and the discrete values of sidescan are referred to as "pixels". An additional difference between "beam" and "pixel" data involves data flagging. An array of "beamflags" is carried by MBIO functions which allows the bathymetry (and by extension the amplitude) data to be flagged as bad. The details of the beamflagging scheme are presented below.

 

VERSION 5 CHANGES

This document describes version 5 releases of MBIO. The source code structure used in version 4 MBIO had grown complex and difficult to support. In particular, the addition of new i/o modules had become excessively time consuming. Consequently, we have restructured and rewritten much of the library. Most of the changes are internal, but two function calls have disappeared (mb_put() and mb_write()), and a number of new functions have been added.

A further significant architectural change was implemented for release 5.0.8 in order to support data formats that have no explicit maximum number of beams or pixels. The memory management of arrays used to hold bathymetry, amplitude, and sidescan data has been made dynamic. Now, when data records are encountered that include larger numbers of beams or pixels than will fit in the arrays previously allocated, those arrays are reallocated to the required size. This is handled automatically for all of the internal arrays used by MBIO functions. Of course, applications using MBIO must allocate arrays that are passed into functions like mb_read, mb_get_all, and mb_get to be populated by the desired data. In order for these arrays to be managed dynamically, the application must first register each array by passing the location of the array pointer to a new function called mb_register_array.

 

OVERVIEW

MBIO opens and initializes sonar data files for reading and writing using the functions mb_read_init and mb_write_init, respectively. These functions return a pointer to a data structure including all relevant information about the opened file, the control parameters which determine how data is read or written, and the arrays used for processing the data as it is read or written. This pointer is then passed to the functions used for reading or writing. There is no limit on the number of files which may be opened for reading or writing at any given time in a program.

The mb_read_init and mb_write_init functions also return initial maximum numbers of bathymetry beams, amplitude beams, and sidescan pixels that can be used to allocate data storage arrays of the appropriate sizes. However, for some data formats there are no specified maximum numbers of beams and pixels, and so in general the required dimensions may increase as data are read. Applications must pass appropriately dimensioned arrays into data extraction routines such as mb_read, mb_get, and mb_get_all. In order to enable dynamic memory management of thse application arrays, the application must first register each array by passing the array pointer location to the function mb_register_array.

Data files are closed using the function mb_close. All internal and registered arrays are deallocated as part of closing the file.

When it comes to actually reading and writing swath mapping sonar data, MBIO has three levels of i/o functionality:
        1:      Simple reading of swath data files. The primary

                functions are:

                        mb_read()

                        mb_get()

                The positions of individual beams and pixels are

                returned in longitude and latitude by

                mb_read() and in acrosstrack and alongtrack

                distances by mb_get(). Only a limited set

                of navigation information is returned. Comments

                are also returned. These functions can be used

                without any special include  files or any

                knowledge of the actual data structures used

                by the data formats or MBIO.

        2:      Complete reading and writing of data structures

                containing all of the available information.

                Data records may be read or written without

                extracting any of the information, or the

                swath data may be passed with the data structure.

                Several functions exist to extract information

                from or insert information into the data

                structures; otherwise, special include files

                are required to make sense of the sonar-specific

                data structures passed by level 2 i/o functions.

                The basic read and write functions that only pass

                pointers to internal data structures are:

                        mb_read_ping()

                        mb_write_ping()

                The read and write routines which also extract

                or insert information are:

                        mb_get_all()

                        mb_put_all()

                        mb_put_comment()

                The information extraction and insertion

                functions are:

                        mb_insert()

                        mb_extract()

                        mb_extract_nav()

                        mb_insert_nav()

                        mb_extract_altitude()

                        mb_insert_altitude()

                        mb_ttimes()

                        mb_copyrecord()

        3:      Buffered reading and writing of data structures

                containing all of the available information.

                The primary functions are:

                        mb_buffer_init()

                        mb_buffer_close()

                        mb_buffer_load()

                        mb_buffer_dump()

                        mb_buffer_info()

                        mb_buffer_get_next_data()

                        mb_buffer_extract()

                        mb_buffer_insert()

                        mb_buffer_get_next_nav()

                        mb_buffer_extract_nav()

                        mb_buffer_insert_nav()

The level 1 MBIO functions allow users to read sonar data independent of format, with the limitation that only a limited set of navigation information is passed. Thus, some of the information contained in certain data formats (e.g. the "heave" value in Hydrosweep DS data) is not passed by mb_read() or mb_get(). In general, the level 1 functions are useful for applications such as graphics which require only the navigation and the depth and/or backscatter values.

The level 2 functions (mb_get_all() and mb_put_all()) read and write the complete data structures, translate the data to internal data structures associated with each of the supported sonar systems, and pass pointers to these internal data structures. Additional functions allow a variety of information to be extracted from or inserted into the data structures (e.g. mb_extract() and mb_insert()). Additional information may be accessed using special include files to decode the data structures. The great majority of processing programs use level 2 functions.

The level 3 functions provide buffered reading and writing which is useful for applications that generate output files and need access to multiple pings at a time. In addition to reading (mb_buffer_load()) and writing (mb_buffer_dump()), functions exist for extracting information from the buffer (mb_buffer_extract()) and inserting information into the buffer (mb_buffer_insert()).

MBIO supports swath data in a number of different formats, each specified by a unique id number. The function mb_format() determines if a format id is valid. A set of similar functions returns information about the specified format (e.g. mb_format_description(), mb_format_system(), mb_format_description(), mb_format_dimensions(), mb_format_flags(), mb_format_source(), mb_format_beamwidth()).

Some MB-System programs can process multiple data files specified in "datalist" files. Each line of a datalist file contains a file path and the corresponding MBIO format id. Datalist files can be recursive and can contain comments. The functions used to extract input swath data file paths from datalist files includes mb_datalist_open(), mb_datalist_read(), and mb_datalist_close().

A number of other MBIO functions dealing with default values for important parameters, error messages, memory management, and time conversions also exist and are discussed below.

 

SUPPORTED SWATH SONAR SYSTEMS

Each swath mapping sonar system outputs a data stream which includes some values or parameters unique to that system. In general, a number of different data formats have come into use for data from each of the sonar systems; many of these formats include only a subset of the original data stream. Internally, MBIO recognizes which sonar system each data format is associated with and uses a data structure including the complete data stream for that sonar. Consequently, it is possible to read and write the complete data stream when using the level 2 or 3 MBIO functions. At present, formats associated with the following sonars are supported:
        SeaBeam "classic" 16 beam multibeam sonar

        Hydrosweep DS 59 beam multibeam sonar

        Hydrosweep MD 40 beam mid-depth multibeam

                sonar

        SeaBeam 2000 multibeam sonar

        SeaBeam 2112, 2120, and 2130 multibeam

                sonars

        Simrad EM12, EM121, EM950, and EM1000

                multibeam sonars

        Simrad EM120, EM300, EM1002, and EM3000

                multibeam sonars

        Hawaii MR-1 shallow tow interferometric

                sonar

        ELAC Bottomchart 1180 and 1050 multibeam

                sonars

        ELAC/SeaBeam Bottomchart Mk2 1180 and

                1050 multibeam sonars

        Reson Seabat 9001/9002 multibeam sonars

        Reson Seabat 8101 multibeam sonars

        Simrad/Mesotech SM2000 multibeam sonars

        WHOI DSL AMS-120 deep tow interferometric

                sonar
        AMS-60 interferometric sonar

 

SUPPORTED FORMATS

The following swath mapping sonar data formats are supported in this version of MBIO:


    MBIO Data Format ID:  11
    Format name:          MBF_SBSIOMRG
    Informal Description: SIO merge Sea Beam
    Attributes:           Sea Beam, bathymetry, 16 beams,
                          binary, uncentered, SIO.


    MBIO Data Format ID:  12
    Format name:          MBF_SBSIOCEN
    Informal Description: SIO centered Sea Beam
    Attributes:           Sea Beam, bathymetry, 19 beams,
                          binary, centered, SIO.


    MBIO Data Format ID:  13
    Format name:          MBF_SBSIOLSI
    Informal Description: SIO LSI Sea Beam
    Attributes:           Sea Beam, bathymetry, 19 beams,
                          binary, centered, obsolete, SIO.


    MBIO Data Format ID:  14
    Format name:          MBF_SBURICEN
    Informal Description: URI Sea Beam
    Attributes:           Sea Beam, bathymetry, 19 beams,
                          binary, centered, URI.


    MBIO Data Format ID:  15
    Format name:          MBF_SBURIVAX
    Informal Description: URI Sea Beam from VAX
    Attributes:           Sea Beam, bathymetry, 19 beams,
                          binary, centered,
                          VAX byte order, URI.


    MBIO Data Format ID:  16
    Format name:          MBF_SBSIOSWB
    Informal Description: SIO Swath-bathy SeaBeam
    Attributes:           Sea Beam, bathymetry, 19 beams,
                          binary, centered, SIO.


    MBIO Data Format ID:  17
    Format name:          MBF_SBIFREMR
    Informal Description: IFREMER Archive SeaBeam
    Attributes:           Sea Beam, bathymetry, 19 beams,
                          ascii, centered, IFREMER.


    MBIO Data Format ID:  21
    Format name:          MBF_HSATLRAW
    Informal Description: Raw Hydrosweep
    Attributes:           Hydrosweep DS, bathymetry and
                          amplitude, 59 beams, ascii,
                          Atlas Electronik.


    MBIO Data Format ID:  22
    Format name:          MBF_HSLDEDMB
    Informal Description: EDMB Hydrosweep
    Attributes:           Hydrosweep DS, bathymetry,
                          59 beams, binary, NRL.


    MBIO Data Format ID:  23
    Format name:          MBF_HSURICEN
    Informal Description: URI Hydrosweep
    Attributes:           Hydrosweep DS, 59 beams,
                          bathymetry, binary, URI.


    MBIO Data Format ID:  24
    Format name:          MBF_HSLDEOIH
    Informal Description: L-DEO in-house binary Hydrosweep
    Attributes:           Hydrosweep DS, 59 beams,
                          bathymetry and amplitude,
                          binary, centered, L-DEO.


    MBIO Data Format ID:  25
    Format name:          MBF_HSURIVAX
    Informal Description: URI Hydrosweep from VAX
    Attributes:           Hydrosweep DS, 59 beams,
                          bathymetry, binary, VAX byte
                          order, URI.


    MBIO Data Format ID:  32
    Format name:          MBF_SB2000SB
    Informal Description: SIO Swath-bathy SeaBeam 2000
    Attributes:           SeaBeam 2000, bathymetry, 121
                          beams, binary,  SIO.


    MBIO Data Format ID:  33
    Format name:          MBF_SB2000SS
    Informal Description: SIO Swath-bathy SeaBeam 2000
    Attributes:           SeaBeam 2000, sidescan,
                          1000 pixels for 4-bit
                          sidescan, 2000 pixels for
                          12+-bit sidescan, binary,
                          SIO.


    MBIO Data Format ID:  41
    Format name:          MBF_SB2100RW
    Informal Description: SeaBeam 2100 series vender format
    Attributes:           SeaBeam 2100, bathymetry,
                          amplitude and sidescan,
                          151 beams and 2000 pixels,
                          ascii with binary sidescan,
                          SeaBeam Instruments.


    MBIO Data Format ID:  42
    Format name:          MBF_SB2100B1
    Informal Description: SeaBeam 2100 series vender format
    Attributes:           SeaBeam 2100, bathymetry,
                          amplitude and sidescan,
                          151 beams bathymetry,
                          2000 pixels sidescan, binary,
                          SeaBeam Instruments and L-DEO.


    MBIO Data Format ID:  43
    Format name:          MBF_SB2100B2
    Informal Description: SeaBeam 2100 series vender format
    Attributes:           SeaBeam 2100, bathymetry and
                          amplitude, 151 beams bathymetry,
                          binary, SeaBeam Instruments
                          and L-DEO.


    MBIO Data Format ID:  51
    Format name:          MBF_EMOLDRAW
    Informal Description: Old Simrad vendor multibeam format
    Attributes:           Simrad EM1000, EM12S, EM12D,
                          and EM121 multibeam sonars,
                          bathymetry, amplitude, and
                          sidescan, 60 beams for EM1000,
                          81 beams for EM12S/D, 121 beams
                          for EM121, variable pixels,
                          ascii + binary, Simrad.


    MBIO Data Format ID:  53
    Format name:          MBF_EM12IFRM
    Informal Description: IFREMER TRISMUS format for
                          Simrad EM12
    Attributes:           Simrad EM12S and EM12D,
                          bathymetry, amplitude, and
                          sidescan 81 beams, variable
                          pixels, binary, IFREMER.


    MBIO Data Format ID:  54
    Format name:          MBF_EM12DARW
    Informal Description: Simrad EM12S RRS Darwin
                          processed format
    Attributes:           Simrad EM12S, bathymetry
                          and amplitude, 81 beams,
                          binary, Oxford University.


    MBIO Data Format ID:  56
    Format name:          MBF_EM300RAW
    Informal Description: Simrad current multibeam
                          vendor format
    Attributes:           Simrad EM120, EM300, EM1002,
                          EM3000, bathymetry, amplitude,
                          and sidescan, up to 254 beams,
                          variable pixels, ascii + binary,
                          Simrad.


    MBIO Data Format ID:  57
    Format name:          MBF_EM300MBA
    Informal Description: Simrad multibeam processing format
    Attributes:           Old and new Simrad multibeams,
                          EM12S, EM12D, EM121, EM120,

                          EM300, EM100, EM1000, EM950,
                          EM1002, EM3000, bathymetry,
                          amplitude, and sidescan,
                          up to 254 beams, variable pixels,
                          ascii + binary, MBARI.


    MBIO Data Format ID:  58
    Format name:          MBF_EM710RAW
    Informal Description: Simrad current multibeam vendor format
    Attributes:           Simrad EM710,
                          bathymetry, amplitude, and sidescan,
                          up to 400 beams, variable pixels,
                          binary, Simrad.


    MBIO Data Format ID:  59
    Format name:          MBF_EM710MBA
    Informal Description: Simrad current multibeam vendor format
    Attributes:           Simrad EM710,
                          bathymetry, amplitude, and sidescan,
                          up to 400 beams, variable pixels,
                          binary, Simrad.


    MBIO Data Format ID:  61
    Format name:          MBF_MR1PRHIG
    Informal Description: SOEST MR1 post processed format
    Attributes:           SOEST MR1, bathymetry and
                          sidescan, variable beams and
                          pixels, xdr binary, SOEST,
                          University of Hawaii.


    MBIO Data Format ID:  62
    Format name:          MBF_MR1ALDEO
    Informal Description: L-DEO MR1 post processed
                          format with travel times
    Attributes:           L-DEO MR1, bathymetry and
                          sidescan, variable beams
                          and pixels, xdr binary, L-DEO.


    MBIO Data Format ID:  63
    Format name:          MBF_MR1BLDEO
    Informal Description: L-DEO small MR1 post processed
                          format with travel times
    Attributes:           L-DEO MR1, bathymetry and sidescan,
                          variable beams and pixels,
                          xdr binary, L-DEO.


    MBIO Data Format ID:  64
    Format name:          MBF_MR1PRVR2
    Informal Description: SOEST MR1 post processed format
    Attributes:           SOEST MR1, bathymetry and sidescan,
                          variable beams and pixels, xdr binary,
                          SOEST, University of Hawaii.


    MBIO Data Format ID:  71
    Format name:          MBF_MBLDEOIH
    Informal Description: L-DEO in-house generic multibeam
    Attributes:           Data from all sonar systems,
                          bathymetry, amplitude and
                          sidescan, variable beams and
                          pixels, binary, centered, L-DEO.


    MBIO Data Format ID:  75
    Format name:          MBF_MBNETCDF
    Informal Description: CARAIBES CDF multibeam
    Attributes:           Data from all sonar systems,
                          bathymetry only, variable
                          beams, netCDF, IFREMER.


    MBIO Data Format ID:  81
    Format name:          MBF_CBAT9001
    Informal Description: Reson SeaBat 9001 shallow
                          water multibeam
    Attributes:           60 beam bathymetry and
                          amplitude, binary, University
                          of New Brunswick.


    MBIO Data Format ID:  82
    Format name:          MBF_CBAT8101
    Informal Description: Reson SeaBat 8101 shallow
                          water multibeam
    Attributes:           101 beam bathymetry and
                          amplitude, binary, SeaBeam
                          Instruments.


    MBIO Data Format ID:  83
    Format name:          MBF_HYPC8101
    Informal Description: Reson SeaBat 8101 shallow
                          water multibeam
    Attributes:           101 beam bathymetry,
                          ASCII, read-only, Coastal
                          Oceanographics.


    MBIO Data Format ID:  84
    Format name:          MBF_XTFR8101
    Informal Description: XTF format Reson SeaBat 81XX
    Attributes:           240 beam bathymetry and amplitude,
                          1024 pixel sidescan
                          binary, read-only,
                          Triton-Elics.


    MBIO Data Format ID:  88
    Format name:          MBF_RESON7KR
    Informal Description: Reson 7K multibeam vendor format
    Attributes:           Reson 7K series multibeam sonars,
                          bathymetry, amplitude, three
                          channels sidescan, and subbottom
                          up to 254 beams, variable pixels,
                          binary, Reson.


    MBIO Data Format ID:  91
    Format name:          MBF_BCHRTUNB
    Informal Description: Elac BottomChart shallow
                          water multibeam
    Attributes:           56 beam bathymetry and
                          amplitude, binary, University
                          of New Brunswick.


    MBIO Data Format ID:  92
    Format name:          MBF_ELMK2UNB
    Informal Description: Elac BottomChart MkII shallow
                          water multibeam
    Attributes:           126 beam bathymetry and
                          amplitude, binary, University
                          of New Brunswick.


    MBIO Data Format ID:  93
    Format name:          MBF_BCHRXUNB
    Informal Description: Elac BottomChart shallow
                          water multibeam
    Attributes:           56 beam bathymetry and
                          amplitude, binary, University
                          of New Brunswick.


    MBIO Data Format ID:  94
    Format name:          MBF_L3XSERAW
    Informal Description: ELAC/SeaBeam XSE vendor format
    Attributes:           Bottomchart MkII 50 kHz and
                          180 kHz multibeam, SeaBeam 2120
                          20 KHz multibeam, bathymetry,
                          amplitude and sidescan, variable
                          beams and pixels, binary, L3
                          Communications (Elac Nautik
                          and SeaBeam Instruments).


    MBIO Data Format ID:  101
    Format name:          MBF_HSMDARAW
    Informal Description: Atlas HSMD medium depth
                          multibeam raw format
    Attributes:           40 beam bathymetry, 160 pixel
                          sidescan, XDR (binary),
                          STN Atlas Elektronik.


    MBIO Data Format ID:  102
    Format name:          MBF_HSMDLDIH
    Informal Description: Atlas HSMD medium depth
                          multibeam processed format
    Attributes:           40 beam bathymetry, 160 pixel
                          sidescan, XDR (binary), L-DEO.


    MBIO Data Format ID:  111
    Format name:          MBF_DSL120SF
    Informal Description: WHOI DSL AMS-120 processed format
    Attributes:           2048 beam bathymetry,
                          8192 pixel sidescan,
                          binary, single files, WHOI DSL.


    MBIO Data Format ID:  112
    Format name:          MBF_DSL120PF
    Informal Description: WHOI DSL AMS-120 processed
                          format
    Attributes:           2048 beam bathymetry,
                          8192 pixel sidescan,
                          binary, parallel bathymetry
                          and amplitude files, WHOI DSL.


    MBIO Data Format ID:  121
    Format name:          MBF_GSFGENMB
    Informal Description: SAIC Generic Sensor Format (GSF)
    Attributes:           variable beams,  bathymetry
                          and amplitude, binary,
                          single files, SAIC.


    MBIO Data Format ID:  131
    Format name:          MBF_MSTIFFSS
    Informal Description: MSTIFF sidescan format
    Attributes:           variable pixels,  sidescan,
                          binary TIFF variant,
                          single files, Sea Scan.


    MBIO Data Format ID:  132
    Format name:          MBF_EDGJSTAR
    Informal Description: Edgetech Jstar format
    Attributes:           variable pixels, dual frequency
                          sidescan and subbottom,
                          binary SEGY variant, single files,
                          low frequency sidescan returned as
                          survey data, Edgetech.


    MBIO Data Format ID:  133
    Format name:          MBF_EDGJSTR2
    Informal Description: Edgetech Jstar format
    Attributes:           variable pixels, dual frequency
                          sidescan and subbottom,
                          binary SEGY variant, single files,
                          high frequency sidescan returned as
                          survey data, Edgetech.


    MBIO Data Format ID:  141
    Format name:          MBF_OICGEODA
    Informal Description: OIC swath sonar format
    Attributes:           variable beam bathymetry and
                          amplitude, variable pixel

                          sidescan, binary,
                          Oceanic Imaging Consultants


    MBIO Data Format ID:  142
    Format name:          MBF_OICMBARI
    Informal Description: OIC-style extended swath
                          sonar format
    Attributes:           variable beam bathymetry and
                          amplitude, variable pixel
                          sidescan, binary, MBARI


    MBIO Data Format ID:  151
    Format name:          MBF_OMGHDCSJ
    Informal Description: UNB OMG HDCS format
                          (the John Hughes Clarke format)
    Attributes:           variable beam bathymetry and
                          amplitude, variable pixel
                          sidescan, binary, UNB


    MBIO Data Format ID:  160
    Format name:          MBF_SEGYSEGY
    Informal Description: SEGY seismic data format
    Attributes:           seismic or subbottom trace data,
                          single beam bathymetry, nav,
                          binary, SEG (SIOSEIS variant)


    MBIO Data Format ID:  161
    Format name:          MBF_MGD77DAT
    Informal Description: NGDC MGD77 underway geophysics
                          format
    Attributes:           single beam bathymetry, nav,
                          magnetics, gravity, ascii,
                          NOAA NGDC


    MBIO Data Format ID:  162
    Format name:          MBF_ASCIIXYZ
    Informal Description: Generic XYZ sounding format
    Attributes:           XYZ (lon lat depth) ASCII
                          soundings, generic


    MBIO Data Format ID:  163
    Format name:          MBF_ASCIIYXZ
    Informal Description: Generic YXZ sounding format
    Attributes:           YXZ (lat lon depth) ASCII
                          soundings, generic


    MBIO Data Format ID:  164
    Format name:         MBF_HYDROB93
    Informal Description: NGDC binary hydrographic
                          sounding format
    Attributes:           XYZ (lon lat depth) binary
                          soundings


    MBIO Data Format ID:  165
    Format name:          MBF_MBARIROV
    Informal Description: MBARI ROV navigation format
    Attributes:           ROV navigation, MBARI


    MBIO Data Format ID:  166
    Format name:          MBF_MBPRONAV
    Informal Description: MB-System simple navigation
                          format
    Attributes:           navigation, MBARI


    MBIO Data Format ID:  167
    Format name:          MBF_MBNETCDF
    Informal Description: CARAIBES CDF navigation
    Attributes:           netCDF, IFREMER.


    MBIO Data Format ID:  168
    Format name:          MBF_ASCIIXYT
    Informal Description: Generic XYT sounding format
    Attributes:           XYT (lon lat topography) ASCII
                          soundings, generic


    MBIO Data Format ID:  169
    Format name:          MBF_ASCIIYXT
    Informal Description: Generic YXT sounding format
    Attributes:           YXT (lat lon topograpy) ASCII
                          soundings, generic


    MBIO Data Format ID:  170
    Format name:          MBF_MBARROV2
    Informal Description: MBARI ROV navigation format
    Attributes:           ROV navigation, MBARI


    MBIO Data Format ID:  171
    Format name:          MBF_HS10JAMS
    Informal Description: Furuno HS-10 multibeam format,
    Attributes:           45 beams bathymetry and amplitude,
                          ascii, JAMSTEC


    MBIO Data Format ID:  181
    Format name:          MBF_SAMESURF
    Informal Description: SAM Electronics SURF format.
    Attributes:           variable beams,  bathymetry,
                          amplitude,  and sidescan,

                          binary, single files, SAM Electronics                          (formerly Krupp-Atlas Electronik).


    MBIO Data Format ID:  182
    Format name:          MBF_HSDS2RAW
    Informal Description: STN Atlas raw multibeam format
    Attributes:           STN Atlas multibeam sonars,
                          Hydrosweep DS2, Hydrosweep MD,

                          Fansweep 10, Fansweep 20,

                          bathymetry, amplitude, and sidescan,

                          up to 1440 beams and 4096 pixels,

                          XDR binary, STN Atlas.


    MBIO Data Format ID:  183
    Format name:          MBF_HSDS2LAM
    Informal Description: L-DEO HSDS2 processing format
    Attributes:           STN Atlas multibeam sonars,
                          Hydrosweep DS2, Hydrosweep MD,

                          Fansweep 10, Fansweep 20,

                          bathymetry, amplitude, and sidescan,

                          up to 1440 beams and 4096 pixels,

                          XDR binary, L-DEO.


    MBIO Data Format ID:  222
    Format name:          MBF_SWPLSSXP
    Informal Description: SEA interferometric processed data format
    Attributes:           Submetrix Interferometers,
                  SWATHplus-L, SWATHplus-M, SWATHplus-H,
                  Bathyswath-1, Bathyswath-2,
                  bathymetry and amplitude, SXP binary.

The institutional acronyms used above have the following meanings:
        L-DEO   Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory

        MBARI   Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute

        SIO     Scripps Institution of Oceanography

        WHOI    Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

        URI     University of Rhode Island

        NRL     Naval Research Laboratory

        UNB     University of New Brunswick

        UH      University of Hawaii

        NOAA    National Oceans and Atmospheres Agency

        NGDC    National Geophysical Data Center

        USGS    United States Geological Survey

        IFREMER French government agency responsible

                for operation of French oceanographic

                research fleet.

 

FUNCTION STATUS AND ERROR CODES

All of the MBIO functions return an integer status value with the convention that:
        status = 1:     success

        status = 0:     failure

All MBIO functions also pass an error value argument which gives somewhat more information about problems than the status value. The full suite of possible error values and the associated error messages are:
        error = 0:      "No error",

        error = -1:     "Time gap in data",

        error = -2:     "Data outside specified location

                        bounds",

        error = -3:     "Data outside specified time interval",

        error = -4:     "Ship speed too small",

        error = -5:     "Comment record",

        error = -6:     "Neither a data record nor a comment

                        record",

        error = -7:     "Unintelligible data record",

        error = -8:     "Ignore this data",

        error = -9:     "No data requested for buffer load",

        error = -10:    "Data buffer is full",

        error = -11:    "No data was loaded into the buffer",

        error = -12:    "Data buffer is empty",

        error = -13:    "No data was dumped from the buffer"

        error = -14:    "No more survey data records in buffer"

        error = -15:    "Data inconsistencies prevented

                        inserting data into storage structure"

        error = 1:      "Unable to allocate memory,

                        initialization failed",

        error = 2:      "Unable to open file,

                        initialization failed",

        error = 3:      "Illegal format identifier,

                        initialization failed",

        error = 4:      "Read error, probably end-of-file",

        error = 5:      "Write error",

        error = 6:      "No data in specified location bounds",

        error = 7:      "No data in specified time interval",

        error = 8:      "Invalid MBIO descriptor",

        error = 9:      "Inconsistent usage of MBIO descriptor",

        error = 10:     "No pings binned but no fatal error

                        - this should not happen!",

        error = 11:     "Invalid data record type specified

                        for writing",

        error = 12:     "Invalid control parameter specified

                        by user",

        error = 13:     "Invalid buffer id",

        error = 14:     "Invalid system id - this should

                        not happen!"

        error = 15:     "This data file is not in the specified format!"

In general, programs should treat negative error values as non-fatal (reading and writing can continue) and positive error values as fatal (the data files should be closed and the program terminated).
 

FUNCTION VERBOSITY

All of the MBIO functions are passed a verbose parameter which controls how much debugging information is output to standard error. If verbose is 0 or 1, the MBIO functions will be silent. If verbose is 2, then each function will output information as it is entered and as it returns, along with the parameter values passed into and returned out of the function. Greater values of verbose will cause additional information to be output, including values at various stages of data processing during read and write operations. In general, programs using MBIO functions should adopt the following verbosity conventions:

        verbose = 0:    "silent" or near-"silent" execution

        verbose = 1:    simple output including

                                program name, version

                                and simple progress updates

        verbose >= 2:   debug mode with copious output

                                including every function call

                                and status listings
 

INITIALIZATION AND CLOSING FUNCTIONS

int mb_read_init(
                int verbose,

                char *file,

                int format,

                int pings,

                int lonflip,

                double bounds[4],

                int btime_i[7],

                int etime_i[7],

                double speedmin,

                double timegap,

                char **mbio_ptr,

                double *btime_d,

                double *etime_d,

                int *beams_bath,

                int *beams_amp,

                int *pixels_ss,

                int *error);

The function mb_read_init initializes the data file to be read and the data structures required for reading the data. The verbose value controls the standard error output verbosity of the function.

The input control parameters have the following significance:
        file:           input filename

        format:         input MBIO data format id

        pings:          ping averaging

        lonflip:                longitude flipping

        bounds:         location bounds of acceptable data

        btime_i:                beginning time of acceptable data

        etime_i:                ending time of acceptable data

        speedmin:               minimum ship speed of acceptable data

        timegap:                maximum time allowed before data gap

The format identifier format specifies which of the supported data formats is being read or written; the currently supported formats are listed in the "SUPPORTED FORMATS" section.

The pings parameter determines whether and how pings are averaged as part of data input. This parameter is used only by the functions mb_read and mb_get; mb_get_all and mb_buffer_load do not average pings. If pings = 1, then no ping averaging will be done and each ping read will be returned unaltered by the reading function. If pings > 1, then the navigation and beam data for pings pings will be read, averaged, and returned as the data for a single ping. If pings = 0, then the ping averaging will be varied so that the along-track distance between averaged pings is as close as possible to the across-track distance between beams.

The lonflip paramenter determines the range in which longitude values are returned:
        lonflip = -1 : -360 to   0

        lonflip =  0 : -180 to 180

        lonflip =  1 :    0 to 360

The bounds array sets the area within which data are desired. Data which lie outside the area specified by bounds will be returned with an error by the reading function. The functions mb_read, mb_get and mb_get_all use the bounds array; the function mb_buffer_load does no location checking.
        bounds[0] : minimum longitude

        bounds[1] : maximum longitude

        bounds[2] : minimum latitude

        bounds[3] : maximum latitude

The btime_i array sets the desired beginning time for the data and the etime_i array sets the desired ending time. If the beginning time is earlier than the ending time, then any data with a time stamp before the beginning time or after the ending time will be returned with an MB_ERROR_OUT_TIME error by the reading function. If the beginning time is after the ending time, then data with time stamps between the ending and beginning time are returned with an error. This scheme allows time windowing outside or inside a specified interval. The functions mb_read, mb_get and mb_get_all use the btime_i and btime_i arrays; the function mb_buffer_load does no time checking.
        btime[0] : year

        btime[1] : month

        btime[2] : day

        btime[3] : hour

        btime[4] : minute

        btime[5] : second

        btime[6] : microsecond

        etime[0] : year

        etime[1] : month

        etime[2] : day

        etime[3] : hour

        etime[4] : minute

        etime[5] : second

        etime[6] : microsecond

The speedmin parameter sets the minimum acceptable ship speed for the data. If the ship speed associated with any ping is less than speedmin, then that data will be returned with an error by the reading function. This is used to eliminate data collected while a ship is on station is a simple way. The functions mb_read, mb_get and mb_get_all use the speedmin value; the function mb_buffer_load does no speed checking.

The timegap parameter sets the minimum time gap allowed before a gap in the data is declared. Ping averaging is not done across data gaps; an error is returned when time gaps are encountered. The functions mb_read and mb_get use the timegap value; the functions mb_get_all and mb_buffer_load do no ping averaging and thus have no need to check for time gaps.

The returned values are:
        mbio_ptr:       pointer to an MBIO descriptor structure

        btime_d:                desired beginning time in seconds

                                        since 1/1/70 00:00:0

        etime_d:                desired ending time in seconds

                                        since 1/1/70 00:00:0

        beams_bath:     maximum number of bathymetry beams

        beams_amp:      maximum number of amplitude beams

        pixels_ss:      maximum number of sidescan pixels

        error:          error value

The structure pointed to by mbio_ptr holds the file descriptor and all of the control parameters which govern how the data is read; this pointer must be provided to the functions mb_read, mb_get, mb_get_all, or mb_buffer_load to read data. The values beams_bath, beams_amp, and pixels_ss return initial estimates of the maximum number of bathymetry and amplitude beams and sidescan pixels, respectively, that the specified data format may contain. In general, beams_amp will either be zero or equal to beams_bath. The values btime_d and etime_d give the desired beginning and end times of the data converted to seconds since 00:00:00 on January 1, 1970; MBIO uses these units to calculate time internally.

For most data formats, the initial maximum beam and pixel dimensions will not change. However, a few formats support both variable and arbitrarily large numbers of beams and/or pixels, and so applications must be capable of handling dynamic changes in the numbers of beams and pixels. The arrays allocated internally in the mbio_ptr structure are automatically increased when necessary. However, in order to successfully extract swath data using mb_get, mb_get_all, mb_read, or mb_extract, an application must also provide pointers to arrays large enough to hold the current maximum numbers of bathymetry beams, amplitude beams, and sidescan pixels. The function mb_register_ioarray allows applications to register array pointers so that these arrays are also dynamically allocated by MBIO. Registered arrays will be managed as data are read and then freed when mb_close is called.

A status value indicating success or failure is returned; an error value argument passes more detailed information about initialization failures.

---------------------------------------------------------
int mb_write_init(
                int verbose,

                char *file,

                int format,

                char **mbio_ptr,

                int *beams_bath,

                int *beams_amp,

                int *pixels_ss,

                int *error);

The function mb_write_init initializes the data file to be written and the data structures required for writing the data. The verbose value controls the standard error output verbosity of the function.

The input control parameters have the following significance:
        file:           output filename

        format:         output MBIO data format id

The returned values are:
        mbio_ptr:       pointer to a structure describing

                                        the output file

        beams_bath:     maximum number of bathymetry beams

        beams_back:     maximum number of backscatter beams

        error:          error value

The structure pointed to by mbio_ptr holds the output file descriptor; this pointer must be provided to the functions mb_write, mb_put, mb_put_all, or mb_buffer_dump to write data. The values beams_bath, beams_amp, and pixels_ss return the maximum number of bathymetry and amplitude beams and sidescan pixels, respectively, that the specified data format may contain. In general, beams_amp will either be zero or equal to beams_bath. In order to successfully write data, the calling program must provide pointers to arrays large enough to hold beams_bath bathymetry values, beams_amp amplitude values, and pixels_ss sidescan values.

For most data formats, the initial maximum beam and pixel dimensions will not change. However, a few formats support both variable and arbitrarily large numbers of beams and/or pixels, and so applications must be capable of handling dynamic changes in the numbers of beams and pixels. The arrays allocated internally in the mbio_ptr structure are automatically increased when necessary. However, in order to successfully insert modified swath data using mb_put, mb_put_all, or mb_insert, an application must also provide pointers to arrays large enough to hold the current maximum numbers of bathymetry beams, amplitude beams, and sidescan pixels. The function mb_register_ioarray allows applications to register array pointers so that these arrays are also dynamically allocated by MBIO. Registered arrays will be managed as data are read and written and then freed when mb_close is called.

A status value indicating success or failure is returned; an error value argument passes more detailed information about initialization failures.

---------------------------------------------------------
int mb_register_array(
                int verbose,

                void *mbio_ptr,

                int type,

                int size,

                void **handle,

                int *error)

Registers an array pointer *handle so that the size of the allocated array can be managed dynamically by MBIO. Note that the location **handle of the array pointer must be supplied, not the pointer value *handle. The pointer value *handle should initially be NULL. The type value indicates whether this array is to be dimensioned according to the maximum number of bathymetry beams (type = 1), amplitude beams (type = 2), or sidescan pixels (type = 3). The size value indicates the size of each element array in bytes (e.g. a char array has size = 1, a short array has size = 2, an int array or a float array have size = 4, and a double array has size = 8). The array is associated with the MBIO descriptor mbio_ptr, and is freed when mb_close is called for this particular mbio_ptr.

---------------------------------------------------------
int mb_close(
                int verbose,

                char *mbio_ptr,

                int *error)

Closes the data file listed in the MBIO descriptor pointed to by mbio_ptr and releases all specially allocated memory, including all application arrays registered using mb_register_array.. The verbose value controls the standard error output verbosity of the function. A status value indicating success or failure is returned; an error value argument passes more detailed information about failures.  

LEVEL 1 FUNCTIONS

---------------------------------------------------------
int mb_read(
                int verbose,

                char *mbio_ptr,

                int *kind,

                int *pings,

                int time_i[7],

                double *time_d,

                double *navlon,

                double *navlat,

                double *speed,

                double *heading,

                double *distance,

                double *altitude,

                double *sonardepth,

                int *nbath,

                int *namp,

                int *nss,

                char *beamflag,

                double *bath,

                double *amp,

                double *bathlon,

                double *bathlat,

                double *ss,

                double *sslon,

                double *sslat,

                char *comment,

                int *error);

The function mb_read reads, processes, and returns sonar data according to the MBIO descriptor pointed to by mbio_ptr. The verbose value controls the standard error output verbosity of the function. A number of different data record types are recognized by MB-System, but mb_read() only returns survey and comment data records. The kind value indicates which type of record has been read. The data is in the form of bathymetry, amplitude, and sidescan values combined with the longitude and latitude locations of the bathymetry and sidescan measurements (amplitudes are coincident with the bathymetry).

The return values are:
        kind:           kind of data record read

                                        1       survey data

                                        2       comment

                                        >=3     other data that cannot

                                                be passed by mb_read

        pings:          number of pings averaged to give current data

        time_i:         time of current ping

                        time_i[0]: year

                        time_i[1]: month

                        time_i[2]: day

                        time_i[3]: hour

                        time_i[4]: minute

                        time_i[5]: second

                        time_i[6]: microsecond

        time_d:         time of current ping in seconds

                        since 1/1/70 00:00:00

        navlon:         longitude

        navlat:         latitude

        speed:          ship speed in km/s

        heading:                ship heading in degrees

        distance:               distance along shiptrack since last

                        ping in km

        altitude:               altitude of sonar above seafloor

                        in m

        sonardepth:     depth of sonar in m

        nbath:          number of bathymetry values

        namp:           number of amplitude values

        nss:            number of sidescan values

        beamflag:               array of bathymetry flags

        bath:           array of bathymetry values in meters

        amp:            array of amplitude values in unknown units

        bathlon:                array of of longitude values corresponding

                        to bathymetry

        bathlat:                array of of latitude values corresponding

                        to bathymetry

        ss:             array of sidescan values in unknown units

        sslon:          array of of longitude values corresponding

                        to sidescan

        sslat:          array of of latitude values corresponding

                        to sidescan

        comment:        comment string

        error:          error value

A status value indicating success or failure is returned; the error value argument error passes more detailed information about read failures.

---------------------------------------------------------
int mb_get(
                int verbose,

                char *mbio_ptr,

                int *kind,

                int *pings,

                int time_i[7],

                double *time_d,

                double *navlon,

                double *navlat,

                double *speed,

                double *heading,

                double *distance,

                double *altitude,

                double *sonardepth,

                int *nbath,

                int *namp,

                int *nss,

                char *beamflag,

                double *bath,

                double *amp,

                double *bathacrosstrack,

                double *bathalongtrack,

                double *ss,

                double *ssacrosstrack,

                double *ssalongtrack,

                char *comment,

                int *error);

The function mb_get reads, processes, and returns sonar data according to the MBIO descriptor pointed to by mbio_ptr. The verbose value controls the standard error output verbosity of the function. A number of different data record types are recognized by MB-System, but mb_get() only returns survey and comment data records. The kind value indicates which type of record has been read. The data is in the form of bathymetry, amplitude, and sidescan values combined with the acrosstrack and alongtrack distances relative to the navigation of the bathymetry and sidescan measurements (amplitudes are coincident with the bathymetry values).

The return values are:
        kind:           kind of data record read

                                        1       survey data

                                        2       comment

                                        >=3     other data that cannot

                                                be passed by mb_get

        pings:          number of pings averaged to give current data

        time_i:         time of current ping

                        time_i[0]: year

                        time_i[1]: month

                        time_i[2]: day

                        time_i[3]: hour

                        time_i[4]: minute

                        time_i[5]: second

                        time_i[6]: microsecond

        time_d:         time of current ping in seconds

                        since 1/1/70 00:00:00

        navlon:         longitude

        navlat:         latitude

        speed:          ship speed in km/s

        heading:                ship heading in degrees

        distance:       distance along shiptrack since last

                        ping in km

        altitude:               altitude of sonar above seafloor

                        in m

        sonardepth:     depth of sonar in m

        nbath:          number of bathymetry values

        namp:           number of amplitude values

        nss:            number of sidescan values

        beamflag:               array of bathymetry flags

        bath:           array of bathymetry values in meters

        amp:            array of amplitude values in unknown units

        bathacrosstrack:        array of of acrosstrack distances

                        in meters corresponding to bathymetry

        bathalongtrack: array of of alongtrack distances

                        in meters corresponding to bathymetry

        ss:             array of sidescan values in unknown units

        ssacrosstrack:  array of of acrosstrack distances

                        in meters corresponding to sidescan

        ssacrosstrack:  array of of alongtrack distances

                        in meters corresponding to sidescan

        comment:                comment string

        error:          error value

A status value indicating success or failure is returned; the error value argument error passes more detailed information about read failures.

 

LEVEL 2 FUNCTIONS

int mb_read_ping(
                int verbose,

                char *mbio_ptr,

                char *store_ptr,

                int *kind,

                int *error);

The function mb_read_ping reads and returns sonar data according to the MBIO descriptor pointed to by mbio_ptr. The verbose value controls the standard error output verbosity of the function. The data is returned one record at a time; no averaging is performed. A pointer to a data structure containing all of the data read is returned as store_ptr; the form of the data structure is determined by the sonar system associated with the format of the data being read. A number of different data record types are recognized by MB-System; the kind value indicates which type of record has been read.

The return values are:
        store_ptr:      pointer to complete data structure

        kind:           kind of data record read

                                        1       survey data

                                        2       comment

                                        3       header

                                        4       calibrate

                                        5       mean sound speed

                                        6       SVP

                                        7       standby

                                        8       nav source

                                        9       parameter

                                        10      start

                                        11      stop

                                        12      nav

                                        13      run parameter

                                        14      clock

                                        15      tide

                                        16      height

                                        17      heading

                                        18      attitude

                                        19      ssv

                                        20      angle

                                        21      event

                                        22      history

                                        23      summary

                                        24      processing parameters

                                        25      sensor parameters

                                        26      navigation error

                                        27      uninterpretable line

        error:          error value

A status value indicating success or failure is returned; the error value argument error passes more detailed information about read failures.

---------------------------------------------------------
int mb_write_ping(
                int verbose,

                char *mbio_ptr,

                char *store_ptr,

                int *error);

The function mb_write_ping writes sonar data to the file listed in the MBIO descriptor pointed to by MBIO_ptr. The verbose value controls the standard error output verbosity of the function. A pointer to a data structure containing all of the data read is passed as store_ptr; the form of the data structure is determined by the sonar system associated with the format of the data being written. The values to be output are:
        store_ptr:      pointer to complete data structure

The return values are:
        error:          error value

A status value indicating success or failure is returned; the error value argument error passes more detailed information about write failures.

---------------------------------------------------------
int mb_get_store(
                int verbose,

                char *mbio_ptr,

                char **store_ptr,

                int *error);

The function mb_get_store() returns a pointer *store_ptr to the data storage structure associated with a particular MBIO descriptor mbio_ptr. The mb_read_init() and mb_write_init() functions both allocate one of these internal storage structures. The form of the data structure is determined by the sonar system associated with the format of the data being written. Storage structure pointers must be passed to level two MBIO functions such as mb_write_ping() and mb_insert(). The verbose value controls the standard error output verbosity of the function.

The return values are:
        store_ptr:      pointer to complete data structure

        error:          error value

A status value indicating success or failure is returned; the error value argument error passes more detailed information about failures.

---------------------------------------------------------
int mb_get_all(
                int verbose,

                char *mbio_ptr,

                char **store_ptr,

                int *kind,

                int time_i[7],

                double *time_d,

                double *navlon,

                double *navlat,

                double *speed,

                double *heading,

                double *distance,

                double *altitude,

                double *sonardepth,

                int *nbath,

                int *namp,

                int *nss,

                char *beamflag,

                double *bath,

                double *amp,

                double *bathacrosstrack,

                double *bathalongtrack,

                double *ss,

                double *ssacrosstrack,

                double *ssalongtrack,

                char *comment,

                int *error);

The function mb_get_all reads and returns sonar data according to the MBIO descriptor pointed to by mbio_ptr. The verbose value controls the standard error output verbosity of the function. The data is returned one record at a time; no averaging is performed. A pointer to a data structure containing all of the data read is returned as store_ptr; the form of the data structure is determined by the sonar system associated with the format of the data being read. A number of different data record types are recognized by MB-System; the kind value indicates which type of record has been read. Additional data is returned if the data record is survey data (navigation, bathymetry, amplitude, and sidescan), navigation data (navigation only), or comment data (comment only).

The return values are:
        store_ptr:      pointer to complete data structure

        kind:           kind of data record read

                                        1       survey data

                                        2       comment

                                        3       header

                                        4       calibrate

                                        5       mean sound speed

                                        6       SVP

                                        7       standby

                                        8       nav source

                                        9       parameter

                                        10      start

                                        11      stop

                                        12      nav

                                        13      run parameter

                                        14      clock

                                        15      tide

                                        16      height

                                        17      heading

                                        18      attitude

                                        19      ssv

                                        20      angle

                                        21      event

                                        22      history

                                        23      summary

                                        24      processing parameters

                                        25      sensor parameters

                                        26      navigation error

                                        27      uninterpretable line

        time_i:         time of current ping

                        time_i[0]: year

                        time_i[1]: month

                        time_i[2]: day

                        time_i[3]: hour

                        time_i[4]: minute

                        time_i[5]: second

                        time_i[6]: microsecond

        time_d:         time of current ping in seconds

                        since 1/1/70 00:00:00

        navlon:         longitude

        navlat:         latitude

        speed:          ship speed in km/s

        heading:                ship heading in degrees

        distance:       distance along shiptrack since last

                        ping in km

        altitude:               altitude of sonar above seafloor

                        in m

        sonardepth:     depth of sonar in m

        nbath:          number of bathymetry values

        namp:           number of amplitude values

        nss:            number of sidescan values

        beamflag:               array of bathymetry flags

        bath:           array of bathymetry values in meters

        amp:            array of amplitude values in unknown units

        bathacrosstrack:        array of of acrosstrack distances

                        in meters corresponding to bathymetry

        bathalongtrack: array of of alongtrack distances

                        in meters corresponding to bathymetry

        ss:             array of sidescan values in unknown units

        ssacrosstrack:  array of of acrosstrack distances

                        in meters corresponding to sidescan

        ssacrosstrack:  array of of alongtrack distances

                        in meters corresponding to sidescan

        comment:        comment string

        error:          error value

A status value indicating success or failure is returned; the error value argument error passes more detailed information about read failures.

---------------------------------------------------------
int mb_put_all(
                int verbose,

                char *mbio_ptr,

                char *store_ptr,

                int usevalues,

                int kind,

                int time_i[7],

                double time_d,

                double navlon,

                double navlat,

                double speed,

                double heading,

                int nbath,

                int namp,

                int nss,

                char *beamflag,

                double *bath,

                double *amp,

                double *bathacrosstrack,

                double *bathalongtrack,

                double *ss,

                double *ssacrosstrack,

                double *ssalongtrack,

                char *comment,

                int *error);

The function mb_put_all writes sonar data to the file listed in the MBIO descriptor pointed to by MBIO_ptr. The verbose value controls the standard error output verbosity of the function. A pointer to a data structure containing all of the data read is passed as store_ptr; the form of the data structure is determined by the sonar system associated with the format of the data being written. Additional data is passed if the data record is survey data (navigation, bathymetry, amplitude, and sidescan), navigation data (navigation only), or comment data (comment only). If the usevalues flag is set to 1, then the passed values will be inserted in the data structure pointed to by store_ptr before the data is written. If the usevalues flag is set to 0, the data structure pointed to by store_ptr will be written without modification. The values to be output are:
        store_ptr:      pointer to complete data structure

        usevalues:      flag controlling use of data passed by value

                                        0       do not insert into data

                                                structure before writing

                                                the data

                                        1       insert into data structure

                                                before writing the data

        kind:           kind of data record to be written

                                        1       survey data

                                        2       comment

                                        3       header

                                        4       calibrate

                                        5       mean sound speed

                                        6       SVP

                                        7       standby

                                        8       nav source

                                        9       parameter

                                        10      start

                                        11      stop

                                        12      nav

                                        13      run parameter

                                        14      clock

                                        15      tide

                                        16      height

                                        17      heading

                                        18      attitude

                                        19      ssv

                                        20      angle

                                        21      event

                                        22      history

                                        23      summary

                                        24      processing parameters

                                        25      sensor parameters

                                        26      navigation error

                                        27      uninterpretable line

        time_i:         time of current ping (used if time_i[0] != 0)

                        time_i[0]: year

                        time_i[1]: month

                        time_i[2]: day

                        time_i[3]: hour

                        time_i[4]: minute

                        time_i[5]: second

                        time_i[6]: microsecond

        time_d:         time of current ping in seconds since

                                1/1/70 00:00:00 (used if time_i[0] = 0)

        navlon:         longitude

        navlat:         latitude

        speed:          ship speed in km/s

        heading:                ship heading in degrees

        nbath:          number of bathymetry values

        namp:           number of amplitude values

        nss:            number of sidescan values

        beamflag:               array of bathymetry flags

        bath:           array of bathymetry values in meters

        amp:            array of amplitude values in unknown units

        bathacrosstrack:        array of of acrosstrack distances

                        in meters corresponding to bathymetry

        bathalongtrack: array of of alongtrack distances

                        in meters corresponding to bathymetry

        ss:             array of sidescan values in unknown units

        ssacrosstrack:  array of of acrosstrack distances

                        in meters corresponding to sidescan

        ssacrosstrack:  array of of alongtrack distances

                        in meters corresponding to sidescan

        comment:        comment string

The return values are:
        error:          error value

A status value indicating success or failure is returned; the error value argument error passes more detailed information about write failures.

---------------------------------------------------------
int mb_put_comment(
                int verbose,

                char *mbio_ptr,

                char *comment,

                int *error);

The function mb_put_comment writes a comment to the file listed in the MBIO descriptor pointed to by MBIO_ptr. The verbose value controls the standard error output verbosity of the function. The data is in the form of a null terminated string. The maximum length of comments varies with different data formats. In general individual comments should be less than 80 characters long to insure compatibility with all formats. The values to be output are:
        comment:                comment string

The return values are:
        error:          error value

A status value indicating success or failure is returned; the error value argument error passes more detailed information about write failures.

---------------------------------------------------------
int mb_extract(
                int verbose,

                char *mbio_ptr,

                char *store_ptr,

                int *kind,

                int time_i[7],

                double *time_d,

                double *navlon,

                double *navlat,

                double *speed,

                double *heading,

                int *nbath,

                int *namp,

                int *nss,

                char *beamflag,

                double *bath,

                double *amp,

                double *bathacrosstrack,

                double *bathalongtrack,

                double *ss,

                double *ssacrosstrack,

                double *ssalongtrack,

                char *comment,

                int *error);

The function mb_extract extracts sonar data from the structure pointed to by *store_ptr according to the MBIO descriptor pointed to by mbio_ptr. The verbose value controls the standard error output verbosity of the function. The form of the data structure is determined by the sonar system associated with the format of the data being read. A number of different data record types are recognized by MB-System; the kind value indicates which type of record is stored in *store_ptr. Additional data is returned if the data record is survey data (navigation, bathymetry, amplitude, and sidescan), navigation data (navigation only), or comment data (comment only).

The return values are:
        kind:           kind of data record read

                                        1       survey data

                                        2       comment

                                        12      navigation

        time_i:         time of current ping

                        time_i[0]: year

                        time_i[1]: month

                        time_i[2]: day

                        time_i[3]: hour

                        time_i[4]: minute

                        time_i[5]: second

                        time_i[6]: microsecond

        time_d:         time of current ping in seconds

                        since 1/1/70 00:00:00

        navlon:         longitude

        navlat:         latitude

        speed:          ship speed in km/s

        heading:                ship heading in degrees

        distance:               distance along shiptrack since last

                        ping in km

        altitude:               altitude of sonar above seafloor

                        in m

        sonardepth:     depth of sonar in m

        nbath:          number of bathymetry values

        namp:           number of amplitude values

        nss:            number of sidescan values

        beamflag:               array of bathymetry flags

        bath:           array of bathymetry values in meters

        amp:            array of amplitude values in unknown units

        bathacrosstrack:        array of of acrosstrack distances

                        in meters corresponding to bathymetry

        bathalongtrack: array of of alongtrack distances

                        in meters corresponding to bathymetry

        ss:             array of sidescan values in unknown units

        ssacrosstrack:  array of of acrosstrack distances

                        in meters corresponding to sidescan

        ssacrosstrack:  array of of alongtrack distances

                        in meters corresponding to sidescan

        comment:        comment string

        error:          error value

A status value indicating success or failure is returned; the error value argument error passes more detailed information about extract failures.

---------------------------------------------------------
int mb_insert(
                int verbose,

                char *mbio_ptr,

                char *store_ptr,

                int kind,

                int time_i[7],

                double time_d,

                double navlon,

                double navlat,

                double speed,

                double heading,

                int nbath,

                int namp,

                int nss,

                char *beamflag,

                double *bath,

                double *amp,

                double *bathacrosstrack,

                double *bathalongtrack,

                double *ss,

                double *ssacrosstrack,

                double *ssalongtrack,

                char *comment,

                int *error);

The function mb_insert inserts sonar data into the structure pointed to by *store_ptr according to the MBIO descriptor pointed to by mbio_ptr. The verbose value controls the standard error output verbosity of the function. The form of the data structure is determined by the sonar system associated with the format of the data being read. A number of different data record types are recognized by MB-System; the kind value indicates which type of record is to be stored in *store_ptr. Data will be inserted only if the data record is survey data (navigation, bathymetry, amplitude, and sidescan), navigation data (navigation only), or comment data (comment only). The values to be inserted are:
        kind:           kind of data record inserted

                                        1       survey data

                                        2       comment

                                        12      navigation

        time_i:         time of current ping

                        time_i[0]: year

                        time_i[1]: month

                        time_i[2]: day

                        time_i[3]: hour

                        time_i[4]: minute

                        time_i[5]: second

                        time_i[6]: microsecond

        time_d:         time of current ping in seconds

                        since 1/1/70 00:00:00

        navlon:         longitude

        navlat:         latitude

        speed:          ship speed in km/s

        heading:                ship heading in degrees

        distance:               distance along shiptrack since last

                        ping in km

        altitude:               altitude of sonar above seafloor

                        in m

        sonardepth:     depth of sonar in m

        nbath:          number of bathymetry values

        namp:           number of amplitude values

        nss:            number of sidescan values

        beamflag:               array of bathymetry flags

        bath:           array of bathymetry values in meters

        amp:            array of amplitude values in unknown units

        bathacrosstrack:        array of of acrosstrack distances

                        in meters corresponding to bathymetry

        bathalongtrack: array of of alongtrack distances

                        in meters corresponding to bathymetry

        ss:             array of sidescan values in unknown units

        ssacrosstrack:  array of of acrosstrack distances

                        in meters corresponding to sidescan

        ssacrosstrack:  array of of alongtrack distances

                        in meters corresponding to sidescan

        comment:        comment string

The return values are:
        error:          error value

A status value indicating success or failure is returned; the error value argument error passes more detailed information about insert failures.

---------------------------------------------------------
int mb_extract_nav(
                int verbose,

                char *mbio_ptr,

                char *store_ptr,

                int *kind,

                int time_i[7],

                double *time_d,

                double *navlon,

                double *navlat,

                double *speed,

                double *heading,

                double *draft,

                double *roll,

                double *pitch,

                double *heave,

                int *error);

The function mb_extract_nav extracts navigation data from the structure pointed to by *store_ptr according to the MBIO descriptor pointed to by mbio_ptr. The verbose value controls the standard error output verbosity of the function. The form of the data structure is determined by the sonar system associated with the format of the data being read. A number of different data record types are recognized by MB-System; the kind value indicates which type of record is stored in *store_ptr. Navigation data is returned if the data record is survey data (navigation, bathymetry, amplitude, and sidescan) or navigation data (navigation only).

The return values are:
        kind:           kind of data record read

                                1       survey data

                                12      navigation

        time_i:         time of current ping

                        time_i[0]: year

                        time_i[1]: month

                        time_i[2]: day

                        time_i[3]: hour

                        time_i[4]: minute

                        time_i[5]: second

                        time_i[6]: microsecond

        time_d:         time of current ping in seconds

                        since 1/1/70 00:00:00

        navlon:         longitude

        navlat:         latitude

        speed:          ship speed in km/s

        heading:                ship heading in degrees

        draft:          sonar depth in meters

        roll:           sonar roll in degrees

        pitch:          sonar pitch in degrees

        heave:          sonar heave in meters

A status value indicating success or failure is returned; the error value argument error passes more detailed information about extract failures.

---------------------------------------------------------
int mb_insert_nav(
                int verbose,

                char *mbio_ptr,

                char *store_ptr,

                int time_i[7],

                double time_d,

                double navlon,

                double navlat,

                double speed,

                double heading,

                double draft,

                double roll,

                double pitch,

                double heave,

                int *error);

The function mb_insert_nav inserts navigation data into the structure pointed to by *store_ptr according to the MBIO descriptor pointed to by mbio_ptr. The verbose value controls the standard error output verbosity of the function. The form of the data structure is determined by the sonar system associated with the format of the data being read. A number of different data record types are recognized by MB-System; the kind value indicates which type of record is to be stored in *store_ptr. Data will be inserted only if the data record is survey data (navigation, bathymetry, amplitude, and sidescan), or navigation data (navigation only). The values to be inserted are:
        time_i:         time of current ping

                        time_i[0]: year

                        time_i[1]: month

                        time_i[2]: day

                        time_i[3]: hour

                        time_i[4]: minute

                        time_i[5]: second

                        time_i[6]: microsecond

        time_d:         time of current ping in seconds

                        since 1/1/70 00:00:00

        navlon:         longitude

        navlat:         latitude

        speed:          ship speed in km/s

        heading:                ship heading in degrees

        draft:          sonar depth in meters

        roll:           sonar roll in degrees

        pitch:          sonar pitch in degrees

        heave:          sonar heave in meters

The return values are:
        error:          error value

A status value indicating success or failure is returned; the error value argument error passes more detailed information about insert failures.

---------------------------------------------------------
int mb_extract_altitude(
                int verbose,

                char *mbio_ptr,

                char *store_ptr,

                int *kind,

                double *transducer_depth,

                double *altitude,

                int *error);

The function mb_extract_altitude extracts the sonar transducer depth (transducer_depth) below the sea surface and the the sonar transducer altitude above the seafloor according to the MBIO descriptor pointed to by mbio_ptr. This function is not defined for all data formats. The verbose value controls the standard error output verbosity of the function. The form of the data structure is determined by the sonar system associated with the format of the data being read. A number of different data record types are recognized by MB-System; the kind value indicates which type of record is stored in *store_ptr. These data are returned only if the data record is survey data. These values are useful for sidescan processing applications. Both transducer depths and altitudes are reported in meters.

The return values are:
        kind:           kind of data record read (error

                                if not survey data):

                                        1       survey data

        transducer_depth:       depth of sonar in meters

        altitude:               altitude of sonar above seafloor

                        in meters.

        error:          error value

A status value indicating success or failure is returned; the error value argument error passes more detailed information about data extraction failures.

---------------------------------------------------------
int mb_insert_altitude(
                int verbose,

                char *mbio_ptr,

                char *store_ptr,

                double transducer_depth,

                double altitude,

                int *error);

The function mb_insert_altitude inserts sonar depth and altitude data into the structure pointed to by *store_ptr according to the MBIO descriptor pointed to by mbio_ptr. This function is not defined for all data formats. The verbose value controls the standard error output verbosity of the function. The form of the data structure is determined by the sonar system associated with the format of the data being read. A number of different data record types are recognized by MB-System. Data will be inserted only if the data record is survey data (navigation, bathymetry, amplitude, and sidescan). The values to be inserted are:
        transducer_depth:       depth of sonar in meters

        altitude:               altitude of sonar in meters

The return values are:
        error:          error value

A status value indicating success or failure is returned; the error value argument error passes more detailed information about insert failures.

---------------------------------------------------------
int mb_extract_svp(
                int verbose,

                char *mbio_ptr,

                char *store_ptr,

                int *kind,

                int *nsvp,

                double *depth,

                double *velocity,

                int *error);

The function mb_extract_svp extracts a water sound velocity profile according to the MBIO descriptor pointed to by mbio_ptr. This function is not defined for all data formats. The verbose value controls the standard error output verbosity of the function. The form of the data structure is determined by the sonar system associated with the format of the data being read. A number of different data record types are recognized by MB-System; the kind value indicates which type of record is stored in *store_ptr. These data are returned only if the data record is a sound velocity profile record. These values are useful for calculating bathymetry from travel times and beam angles.

The return values are:
        kind:           kind of data record read (error

                                if not SVP data):

                                        6       SVP data

        nsvp:           number of depth and sound speed

                                data in the profile

        depth:          array of depths in meters

        velocity:               array of sound speeds in m/sec

        error:          error value

A status value indicating success or failure is returned; the error value argument error passes more detailed information about data extraction failures.

---------------------------------------------------------
int mb_insert_svp(
                int verbose,

                char *mbio_ptr,

                char *store_ptr,

                int nsvp,

                double *depth,

                double *velocity,

                int *error);

The function mb_insert_svp inserts a water sound velocity profile according to the MBIO descriptor pointed to by mbio_ptr. This function is not defined for all data formats. The verbose value controls the standard error output verbosity of the function. The form of the data structure is determined by the sonar system associated with the format of the data being read. A number of different data record types are recognized by MB-System. These data are inserted only if the data record is a sound velocity profile record. These values are useful for calculating bathymetry from travel times and beam angles. The inserted values are:
        nsvp:           number of depth and sound speed

                                data in the profile

        depth:          array of depths in meters

        velocity:               array of sound speeds in m/sec

The return values are:
        error:          error value

A status value indicating success or failure is returned; the error value argument error passes more detailed information about data insertion failures.

---------------------------------------------------------
int mb_ttimes(
                int verbose,

                char *mbio_ptr,

                char *store_ptr,

                int *kind,

                int *nbeams,

                double *ttimes,

                double  *angles,

                double *angles_forward,

                double *angles_null,

                double *heave,

                double *alongtrack_offset,

                double *draft,

                double *ssv,

                int *error);

The function mb_ttimes extracts travel times and beam angles from a sonar-specific data structure pointed to by store_ptr. These values are used for calculating swath bathymetry. The verbose value controls the standard error output verbosity of the function. The coordinates of the beam angles can be a bit confusing. The angles are returned in "takeoff angle coordinates" appropriate for raytracing. The array angles contains the angle from vertical and the array angles_forward contains the angle from acrosstrack. This coordinate system is distinct from the roll-pitch coordinates appropriate for correcting roll and pitch values. A description of these relevant coordinate systems is given below. The angles_null array contains the effective sonar array orientation for each beam. The angles_null array may be used to correct beam angles using Snell's law if the ssv is changed. The angles_null values reflect the sonar configuration. For example, some multibeam sonars have a flat transducer array, and so the angles_null array consists of nbeams zero values. Other multibeams have circular arrays so that the angles_null values equal the angles values. The alongtrack_offset array accommodates sonars which report multiple pings in a single survey record; each ping occurs at a different position along the shiptrack, producing alongtrack offsets relative to the navigation for some beam values. The sum of the draft value and the heave array values gives the depth of the sonar for each beam. For hull mounted installations the draft value is generally static but the heave values vary with time. For towed sonars the draft varies with time and the heave values are typically zero. The ssv value gives the water sound velocity at the sonar array.

The return values are:
        kind:           kind of data record read (error

                                if not survey data):

                                        1       survey data

        nbeams:         number of beams

        ttimes:         array of two-way travel times in seconds

        angles:         array of angles from vertical in degrees

        angles_forward: array of angles from acrosstrack in degrees

        angles_null:    array of sonar array orientation in degrees

        heave:          array of heave values for each beam in meters

        alongtrack_offset:array of alongtrack distance offsets for

                                each beam in meters

        draft:          draft of sonar in meters

        ssv:            water sound velocity at sonar in m/seconds

        error:          error value

A status value indicating success or failure is returned; the error value argument error passes more detailed information about data extraction failures.

---------------------------------------------------------
int mb_detects(
                int verbose,

                void *mbio_ptr,

                void *store_ptr,

                int *kind,

                int *nbeams,

                int *detects,

                int *error);

The function mb_detects extracts beam bottom detect types from a sonar-specific data structure pointed to by store_ptr. These values indicate whether the depth value associated with a particular beam i derived from an amplitude detect (e.g. detects[i] = 1), a phase detect (e.g. detects[i] = 2), or the algorithm is unknown (e.g. detects[i] = 0). The verbose value controls the standard error output verbosity of the function.

The return values are:
        kind:           kind of data record read (error

                                if not survey data):

                                        1       survey data

        nbeams:         number of beams

        detects:                array of nbeams bottom detect algorithm flags

                                        0 = unknown
                                        1 = amplitude detect
                                        2 = phase detect

        error:          error value

A status value indicating success or failure is returned; the error value argument error passes more detailed information about data extraction failures. This functionality is available for only a subset of the supported sonars. If the corresponding low level routine is undefined, *error will be set to MB_ERROR_BAD_SYSTEM (14).

---------------------------------------------------------
int mb_gains(
                int verbose,

                void *mbio_ptr,

                void *store_ptr,

                int *kind,

                double *transmit_gain,

                double *pulse_length,

                double *receive_gain,

                int *error);

The function mb_gains extracts the most basic gain settings from a sonar-specific data structure pointed to by store_ptr. In many cases, sonars have more complicated gain functions, particularly with respect to the receiver TVG function. In those cases, the receive gain returned here refers to the constant gain setting and does not include any TVG parameters. The verbose value controls the standard error output verbosity of the function.

The return values are:
        kind:           kind of data record read (error

                                if not survey data):

                                        1       survey data

        transmit_gain:  transmit gain (dB)

        pulse_length:   transmit pulse length (sec)

        receive_gain:   receive gain (dB)

        error:          error value

A status value indicating success or failure is returned; the error value argument error passes more detailed information about data extraction failures. This functionality is available for only a subset of the supported sonars. If the corresponding low level routine is undefined, *error will be set to MB_ERROR_BAD_SYSTEM (14).

---------------------------------------------------------
int mb_extract_rawss(
                int verbose,

                char *mbio_ptr,

                char *store_ptr,

                int *kind,

                int *nrawss,

                double *rawss,

                double *rawssacrosstrack,

                double *rawssalongtrack,

                int *error);

This function has not yet been implemented for any data format. The notion is that since some formats carry both "raw" and "processed" sidescan imagery, there should be functions to extract and insert the "raw" sidescan. Given that the meaning of "raw" sidescan varies greatly among sonars, the processing one might apply to the data will depend on the sonar source. The definition of mb_extract_rawss may well change when we actually implement it.

---------------------------------------------------------
int mb_insert_rawss(
                int verbose,

                char *mbio_ptr,

                char *store_ptr,

                int nrawss,

                double *rawss,

                double *rawssacrosstrack,

                double *rawssalongtrack,

                int *error);

This function has not yet been implemented for any data format. The notion is that since some formats carry both "raw" and "processed" sidescan imagery, there should be functions to extract and insert the "raw" sidescan. Given that the meaning of "raw" sidescan varies greatly among sonars, the processing one might apply to the data will depend on the sonar source. The definition of mb_insert_rawss may well change when we actually implement it.

---------------------------------------------------------
int mb_copyrecord(
                int verbose,

                char *mbio_ptr,

                char *store_ptr,

                char *copy_ptr,

                int *error);

The function mb_copyrecord copies the sonar-specific data structure pointed to by store_ptr into the data structure pointed to by *copy_ptr. The data structures must already have been allocated.

The return values are:
        error:          error value

A status value indicating success or failure is returned; the error value argument error passes more detailed information about data copy failures.

 

LEVEL 3 FUNCTIONS

int mb_buffer_init(
                int verbose,

                char **buff_ptr,

                int *error);

The function mb_buffer_init initializes the data structures required for buffered i/0. A pointer to the buffer data structure is returned as *buff_ptr. The verbose value controls the standard error output verbosity of the function.

The return values are:
        *buff_ptr:      pointer to buffer structure

        error:          error value

A status value indicating success or failure is returned; the error value argument error passes more detailed information about buffer initialization failures.

---------------------------------------------------------
int mb_buffer_close(
                int verbose,

                char **buff_ptr,

                char *mbio_ptr,

                int *error);

The function mb_buffer_close releases all memory allocated for buffered i/0, including the structure pointed to by *buff_ptr. The verbose value controls the standard error output verbosity of the function.

The return values are:
        error:          error value

A status value indicating success or failure is returned; the error value argument error passes more detailed information about buffer deallocation failures.

---------------------------------------------------------
int mb_buffer_load(
                int verbose,

                char *buff_ptr,char *mbio_ptr,

                int nwant,

                int *nload,

                int *nbuff,

                int *error);

The function mb_buffer_load loads data into the buffer pointed to by buff_ptr from the input file initialized in the MBIO descriptor pointed to by mbio_ptr. The verbose value controls the standard error output verbosity of the function.

The input control parameters have the following significance:
        nwant:          The number of data records desired

                                in the buffer.

The returned values are:
        nload:          The number of data records loaded into the buffer.

        nbuff:          The total number of data records in the buffer after loading.

        error:          error value

The buffer may already contain data records when the mb_buffer_load call is made; if the number of previously loaded records is less than nwant, the function will attempt to read and load records until a total of nwant records are loaded. The nload value is the number of data records loaded during the current function call, and the nbuff value is the number of data records in the buffer at the completion of the mb_buffer_load call. A status value indicating success or failure is returned; the error value argument error passes more detailed information about buffer deallocation failures.

---------------------------------------------------------
int mb_buffer_dump(
                int verbose,

                char *buff_ptr,

                char *mbio_ptr,

                char *ombio_ptr,

                int nhold,

                int *ndump,

                int *nbuff,

                int *error);

The function mb_buffer_dump dumps data from the buffer pointed to by *buff_ptr into the output file initialized in the MBIO descriptor pointed to by ombio_ptr. The data in the buffer were read from the input file initialized in the MBIO descriptor pointed to by mbio_ptr. The verbose value controls the standard error output verbosity of the function.

The input control parameters have the following significance:
        nhold:          The number of data records desired to be held

                                in the buffer.

The returned values are:
        nload:          The number of data records dumped from the buffer.

        nbuff:          The total number of data records in the buffer after dumping.

        error:          error value

If the number of loaded records is more than nhold, the function will attempt to write out records from the beginning of the buffer until nhold records are left in the buffer. The ndump value is the number of data records dumped during the current function call, and the nbuff value is the number of data records in the buffer at the completion of the mb_buffer_dump call. A status value indicating success or failure is returned; the error value argument error passes more detailed information about buffer deallocation failures.

---------------------------------------------------------
int mb_buffer_clear(
                int verbose,

                char *buff_ptr,

                char *mbio_ptr,

                int nhold,

                int *ndump,

                int *nbuff,

                int *error);

The function mb_buffer_clear removes data from the buffer pointed to by *buff_ptr without writing those data records to an output file. An MBIO descriptor pointed to by mbio_ptr is still required, and generally represents the MBIO descriptor used to read and load the data originally. The verbose value controls the standard error output verbosity of the function.

The input control parameters have the following significance:
        nwant:          The number of data records desired to be held

                                in the buffer.

The returned values are:
        nload:          The number of data records cleared from the buffer.

        nbuff:          The total number of data records in the buffer after dumping.

        error:          error value

If the number of loaded records is more than nhold, the function will attempt to clear out records from the beginning of the buffer until nhold records are left in the buffer. The ndump value is the number of data records cleared during the current function call, and the nbuff value is the number of data records in the buffer at the completion of the mb_buffer_dump call. A status value indicating success or failure is returned; the error value argument error passes more detailed information about buffer deallocation failures.

---------------------------------------------------------
int mb_buffer_info(
                int verbose,

                char *buff_ptr,

                char *mbio_ptr,

                int id,

                int *system,

                int *kind,

                int *error);

The function mb_buffer_clear removes data from the buffer pointed to by *buff_ptr without writing those data records to an output file. An MBIO descriptor pointed to by mbio_ptr is still required, and generally represents the MBIO descriptor used to read and load the data originally. The verbose value controls the standard error output verbosity of the function.

The input control parameters have the following significance:
        nwant:          The number of data records desired to be held

                                in the buffer.

The returned values are:
        nload:          The number of data records cleared from the buffer.

        nbuff:          The total number of data records in the buffer after dumping.

        error:          error value

If the number of loaded records is more than nhold, the function will attempt to clear out records from the beginning of the buffer until nhold records are left in the buffer. The ndump value is the number of data records cleared during the current function call, and the nbuff value is the number of data records in the buffer at the completion of the mb_buffer_dump call. A status value indicating success or failure is returned; the error value argument error passes more detailed information about buffer deallocation failures.

---------------------------------------------------------
int mb_buffer_get_next_data(
                int verbose,

                char *buff_ptr,

                char *mbio_ptr,

                int start,

                int *id,

                int time_i[7],

                double *time_d,

                double *navlon,

                double *navlat,

                double *speed,

                double *heading,

                int *nbath,

                int *namp,

                int *nss,

                char *beamflag,

                double *bath,

                double *amp,

                double *bathacrosstrack,

                double *bathalongtrack,

                double *ss,

                double *ssacrosstrack,

                double *ssalongtrack,

                int *error);

The function mb_buffer_get_next_data searches for the next survey data record in the buffer, beginning at buffer index start. Since buffer indexes begin at 0, the first call to mb_buffer_get_next_data should have start = 0. If a survey data record is found at or beyond start, mb_buffer_get_next_data returns the buffer index of that record in id. Data is also returned in the forms of bathymetry, amplitude, and sidescan survey data. No comments or other non-survey data records are returned. The verbose value controls the standard error output verbosity of the function.

The input control parameters have the following significance:
        start:          The buffer index at which to start

                        searching for a survey data record.

The returned values are:
        id:             The buffer index of the first survey

                        data record at or after start.

        time_i:         time of current ping

                        time_i[0]: year

                        time_i[1]: month

                        time_i[2]: day

                        time_i[3]: hour

                        time_i[4]: minute

                        time_i[5]: second

                        time_i[6]: microsecond

        time_d:         time of current ping in seconds

                        since 1/1/70 00:00:00

        navlon:         longitude

        navlat:         latitude

        speed:          ship speed in km/s

        heading:                ship heading in degrees

        nbath:          number of bathymetry values

        namp:           number of amplitude values

        nss:            number of sidescan values
        beamflag:               array of bathymetry flags

        bath:           array of bathymetry values in meters

        amp:            array of amplitude values in unknown units

        bathacrosstrack:        array of of acrosstrack distances

                        in meters corresponding to bathymetry

        bathalongtrack: array of of alongtrack distances

                        in meters corresponding to bathymetry

        ss:             array of sidescan values in unknown units

        ssacrosstrack:  array of of acrosstrack distances

                        in meters corresponding to sidescan

        ssacrosstrack:  array of of alongtrack distances

                        in meters corresponding to sidescan

        error:          error value

A status value indicating success or failure is returned; the error value argument error passes more detailed information about failures. The most common error occurs when no more survey data records remain to be found in the buffer; in this case, error = -14.

---------------------------------------------------------
int mb_buffer_extract(
                int verbose,

                char *buff_ptr,

                char *mbio_ptr,

                int id,

                int *kind,

                int time_i[7],

                double *time_d,

                double *navlon,

                double *navlat,

                double *speed,

                double *heading,

                int *nbath,

                int *namp,

                int *nss,

                char *beamflag,

                double *bath,

                double *amp,

                double *bathacrosstrack,

                double *bathalongtrack,

                double *ss,

                double *ssacrosstrack,

                double *ssalongtrack,

                char *comment,

                int *error);

The function mb_buffer_extract extracts and returns a subset of the data in a buffer record. The verbose value controls the standard error output verbosity of the function. The buffer record is specified with the buffer index id. The data is either in the form of bathymetry, amplitude, and sidescan survey data or a comment string.

The input control parameters have the following significance:
        id:             The buffer index of the data

                        record to extract.

The returned values are:
        kind:           kind of data record extracted

                                        1       survey data

                                        2       comment

                                        >=3     other data that cannot

                                                be passed by mb_buffer_extract

        time_i:         time of current ping

                        time_i[0]: year

                        time_i[1]: month

                        time_i[2]: day

                        time_i[3]: hour

                        time_i[4]: minute

                        time_i[5]: second

                        time_i[6]: microsecond

        time_d:         time of current ping in seconds

                        since 1/1/70 00:00:00

        navlon:         longitude

        navlat:         latitude

        speed:          ship speed in km/s

        heading:                ship heading in degrees

        nbath:          number of bathymetry values

        namp:           number of amplitude values

        nss:            number of sidescan values

        beamflag:               array of bathymetry flags

        bath:           array of bathymetry values in meters

        amp:            array of amplitude values in unknown units

        bathacrosstrack:        array of of acrosstrack distances

                        in meters corresponding to bathymetry

        bathalongtrack: array of of alongtrack distances

                        in meters corresponding to bathymetry

        ss:             array of sidescan values in unknown units

        ssacrosstrack:  array of of acrosstrack distances

                        in meters corresponding to sidescan

        ssacrosstrack:  array of of alongtrack distances

                        in meters corresponding to sidescan

        comment:                comment string

        error:          error value

A status value indicating success or failure is returned; the error value argument error passes more detailed information about extract failures.

---------------------------------------------------------
int mb_buffer_insert(
                int verbose,

                char *buff_ptr,

                char *mbio_ptr,

                int id,

                int time_i[7],

                double time_d,

                double navlon,

                double navlat,

                double speed,

                double heading,

                int nbath,

                int namp,

                int nss,

                char *beamflag,

                double *bath,

                double *amp,

                double *bathacrosstrack,

                double *bathalongtrack,

                double *ss,

                double *ssacrosstrack,

                double *ssalongtrack,

                char *comment,

                int *error);

The function mb_buffer_insert inserts data into a buffer record, replacing a subset of the original values. The verbose value controls the standard error output verbosity of the function. The buffer record is specified with the buffer index id. The data is either in the form of bathymetry, amplitude, and sidescan survey data or a comment string.

The input control parameters have the following significance:
        id:             The buffer index of the data

                        record to insert.

The returned values are:
        kind:           kind of data record inserted

                                        1       survey data

                                        2       comment

                                        >=3     other data that cannot

                                                be passed by mb_buffer_insert

        time_i:         time of current ping

                        time_i[0]: year

                        time_i[1]: month

                        time_i[2]: day

                        time_i[3]: hour

                        time_i[4]: minute

                        time_i[5]: second

                        time_i[6]: microsecond

        time_d:         time of current ping in seconds

                        since 1/1/70 00:00:00

        navlon:         longitude

        navlat:         latitude

        speed:          ship speed in km/s

        heading:                ship heading in degrees

        nbath:          number of bathymetry values

        namp:           number of amplitude values

        nss:            number of sidescan values

        beamflag:               array of bathymetry flags

        bath:           array of bathymetry values in meters

        amp:            array of amplitude values in unknown units

        bathacrosstrack:        array of of acrosstrack distances

                        in meters corresponding to bathymetry

        bathalongtrack: array of of alongtrack distances

                        in meters corresponding to bathymetry

        ss:             array of sidescan values in unknown units

        ssacrosstrack:  array of of acrosstrack distances

                        in meters corresponding to sidescan

        ssacrosstrack:  array of of alongtrack distances

                        in meters corresponding to sidescan

        comment:                comment string

The returned values are:
        error:          error value

A status value indicating success or failure is returned; the error value argument error passes more detailed information about insert failures.

---------------------------------------------------------
int mb_buffer_get_next_nav(
                int verbose,

                char *buff_ptr,

                char *mbio_ptr,

                int start,

                int *id,

                int time_i[7],

                double *time_d,

                double *navlon,

                double *navlat,

                double *speed,

                double *heading,

                double *draft,

                double *roll,

                double *pitch,

                double *heave,

                int *error);

The function mb_buffer_get_next_nav searches for the next survey data record in the buffer, beginning at buffer index start. Since buffer indexes begin at 0, the first call to mb_buffer_get_next_nav should have start = 0. If a survey data record is found at or beyond start, mb_buffer_get_next_nav returns the buffer index of that record in id. Navigation and vertical reference sensor data is also returned. No comments or other non-survey data records are returned. The verbose value controls the standard error output verbosity of the function.

The input control parameters have the following significance:
        start:          The buffer index at which to start

                        searching for a survey data record.

The returned values are:
        id:             The buffer index of the first survey data record at or after start.

        time_i:         time of current ping

                        time_i[0]: year

                        time_i[1]: month

                        time_i[2]: day

                        time_i[3]: hour

                        time_i[4]: minute

                        time_i[5]: second

                        time_i[6]: microsecond

        time_d:         time of current ping in seconds

                        since 1/1/70 00:00:00

        navlon:         longitude

        navlat:         latitude

        speed:          ship speed in km/s

        heading:                ship heading in degrees

        roll:           ship roll in degrees

        pitch:          ship pitch in degrees

        heave:          ship heave in meters

A status value indicating success or failure is returned; the error value argument error passes more detailed information about failures. The most common error occurs when no more survey data records remain to be found in the buffer; in this case, error = -14.

---------------------------------------------------------
int mb_buffer_extract_nav(
                int verbose,

                char *buff_ptr,

                char *mbio_ptr,

                int id,

                int *kind,

                int time_i[7],

                double *time_d,

                double *navlon,

                double *navlat,

                double *speed,

                double *heading,

                double *draft,

                double *roll,

                double *pitch,

                double *heave,

                int *error);

The function mb_buffer_extract_nav extracts and returns a subset of the data in a buffer record. The verbose value controls the standard error output verbosity of the function. The buffer record is specified with the buffer index id. The data returned consists of navigation and vertical reference sensor data.

The input control parameters have the following significance:
        id:             The buffer index of the data

                        record to extract.

The returned values are:
        kind:           kind of data record extracted

                                        1       survey data

                                        2       comment

                                        >=3     other data that cannot

                                                be passed by mb_buffer_extract_nav

        time_i:         time of current ping

                        time_i[0]: year

                        time_i[1]: month

                        time_i[2]: day

                        time_i[3]: hour

                        time_i[4]: minute

                        time_i[5]: second

                        time_i[6]: microsecond

        time_d:         time of current ping in seconds

                        since 1/1/70 00:00:00

        navlon:         longitude

        navlat:         latitude

        speed:          ship speed in km/s

        heading:                ship heading in degrees

        roll:           ship roll in degrees

        pitch:          ship pitch in degrees

        heave:          ship heave in meters

A status value indicating success or failure is returned; the error value argument error passes more detailed information about extract failures.

---------------------------------------------------------
int mb_buffer_insert_nav(
                int verbose,

                char *buff_ptr,

                char *mbio_ptr,

                int id,

                int time_i[7],

                double time_d,

                double navlon,

                double navlat,

                double speed,

                double heading,

                double draft,

                double roll,

                double pitch,

                double heave,

                int *error);

The function mb_buffer_insert_nav inserts navigation and vertical reference sensor data into a buffer record, replacing a subset of the original values. The verbose value controls the standard error output verbosity of the function. The buffer record is specified with the buffer index id.

The input control parameters have the following significance:
        id:             The buffer index of the data

                        record to insert.

The returned values are:
        kind:           kind of data record inserted

                                        1       survey data

                                        2       comment

                                        >=3     other data that cannot

                                                be passed by mb_buffer_insert_nav

        time_i:         time of current ping

                        time_i[0]: year

                        time_i[1]: month

                        time_i[2]: day

                        time_i[3]: hour

                        time_i[4]: minute

                        time_i[5]: second

                        time_i[6]: microsecond

        time_d:         time of current ping in seconds

                        since 1/1/70 00:00:00

        navlon:         longitude

        navlat:         latitude

        speed:          ship speed in km/s

        heading:                ship heading in degrees

        roll:           ship roll in degrees

        pitch:          ship pitch in degrees

        heave:          ship heave in meters

A status value indicating success or failure is returned; the error value argument error passes more detailed information about insert failures.

---------------------------------------------------------
int mb_buffer_get_ptr(
                int verbose,

                char *buff_ptr,

                char *mbio_ptr,

                int id,

                char **store_ptr,

                int *error);

The function mb_buffer_get_ptr returns a pointer to the data structure in a buffer record. The verbose value controls the standard error output verbosity of the function. The buffer record is specified with the buffer index id. The data returned consists of a pointer to the data structure stored in the specified buffer record.

The input control parameters have the following significance:
        id:             The buffer index of the data

                                record to locate.

The return values are:
        *store_ptr:     pointer to data in specified

                                buffer record

        error:          error value

A status value indicating success or failure is returned; the error value argument error passes more detailed information about buffer failures.

 

MISCELLANEOUS FUNCTIONS

int mb_defaults(
                int verbose,

                int *format,

                int *pings,

                int *lonflip,

                double bounds[4],

                int *btime_i,

                int *etime_i,

                double *speedmin,

                double *timegap);

The function mb_defaults provides default values of control parameters used by some of the MBIO functions. The verbose value controls the standard error output verbosity of the function. The other parameters are set by the function; the meaning of these parameters is discussed in the listings of the functions mb_read_init and mb_write_init. If an .mbio_defaults file exists in the user's home directory, the lonflip and timegap defaults are read from this file. Otherwise, the values are set as:
        *lonflip = 0

        *timegap = 1

The other values are simply set as:
        *format = 0

        *pings = 1

        bounds[0] = -360.

        bounds[1] = 360.

        bounds[2] = -90.

        bounds[3] = 90.

        btime_i[0] = 1962;

        btime_i[1] = 2;

        btime_i[2] = 21;

        btime_i[3] = 10;

        btime_i[4] = 30;

        btime_i[5] = 0;

        btime_i[6] = 0;

        etime_i[0] = 2062;

        etime_i[1] = 2;

        etime_i[2] = 21;

        etime_i[3] = 10;

        etime_i[4] = 30;

        etime_i[5] = 0;

        etime_i[6] = 0;

        *speedmin = 0.0

A status value is returned to indicate success or failure.

---------------------------------------------------------
int mb_env(
                int verbose,

                char *psdisplay,

                char *imgdisplay,

                char *mbproject);

The function mb_env provides default values of Postscript and image display programs invoked by some MB-System programs and macros, and a default value for a working project name that will be used by future applications. The verbose value controls the standard error output verbosity of the function. If an .mbio_defaults file exists in the user's home directory, the *psdisplay, *imgdisplay, *mbproject defaults are read from this file. Otherwise, the values are set as:
        psdisplay =  "xpsview" (IRIX OS)

                           "pageview" (Solaris OS)

                           "gv" (other OS)

                           "ghostview" (other OS)

        imgdisplay = "gimp" (Linux OS)

                           "xv" (other than Linux OS)

        mbproject =  "none"

---------------------------------------------------------
int mb_format(
                int verbose,

                int *format,

                int *error);

Given the format identifier format, mb_format checks if the format is valid. If the format id corresponds to a value used in previous (<4.00) versions of MB-System, then the format value will be aliased to the current corresponding value.

The return values are:
        format:         MBIO format id

        error:          error value

A status value indicating success or failure is returned; the error value argument error passes more detailed information about failures.

---------------------------------------------------------
int mb_format_register(
                int verbose,

                int *format,

                char *mbio_ptr,

                int *error);

The function mb_format_register is called by mb_read_init and mb_write_init and serves to load format specific parameters and function parameters into the MBIO control structure pointed to by *error. The format id *format is first checked for validity. In some cases, formerly valid but now obsolete format id values are mapped to current values.

The input values are:
        *format:                MBIO format id

        *mbio_ptr:      pointer to data in specified

                                buffer record

The return values are:
        error:          error value

A status value indicating success or failure is returned; the error value argument error passes more detailed information about failures.

---------------------------------------------------------
int mb_format_info(
                int verbose,

                int *format,

                int *system,

                int *beams_bath_max,

                int *beams_amp_max,

                int *pixels_ss_max,

                char *format_name,

                char *system_name,

                char *format_description,

                int *numfile,

                int *filetype,

                int *variable_beams,

                int *traveltime,

                int *beam_flagging,

                int *nav_source,

                int *heading_source,

                int *vru_source,

                double *beamwidth_xtrack,

                double *beamwidth_ltrack,

                int *error);

The function mb_format_info returns a variety of data format specific parameters. The format id *format is first checked for validity. In some cases, formerly valid but now obsolete format id values are mapped to current values.

The input values are:
        *format:                MBIO format id

The return values are:
        *format:                MBIO format id

        *system:                MBIO sonar system id

        *beams_bath_max:        maximum number of bathymetry beams

        *beams_amp_max: maximum number of amplitude beams

        *pixels_ss_max: maximum number of sidescan pixels

        *format_name:   MBIO format name

        *system_name:   MBIO sonar system name

        *format_description:    MBIO format description

        *numfile:               number of parallel data files used in format

        *filetype:      type of data files

        *variable_beams:        number of beams can vary [boolean]

        *traveltime:    travel time data available [boolean]

        *beam_flagging: beam flagging supported [boolean]

        *nav_source:    kind of data records containing navigation

        *heading_source:        kind of data records containing

                                heading

        *vru_source:    kind of data records containing

                                attitude

        *beamwidth_xtrack:      typical athwartships beam

                                        width [degrees]

        *beamwidth_ltrack:      typical alongtrack beam

                                        width [degrees]

        error:          error value

A status value indicating success or failure is returned; the error value argument error passes more detailed information about failures.

---------------------------------------------------------
int mb_format_system(
                int verbose,

                int *format,

                int *system,

                int *error);

The function mb_format_system returns the MBIO sonar system id. The format id *format is first checked for validity. In some cases, formerly valid but now oattintbsolete format id values are mapped to current values. The input values are:
        *format:                MBIO format id

The return values are:
        *format:                MBIO format id

        *system:                MBIO sonar system id

        error:          error value

A status value indicating success or failure is returned; the error value argument error passes more detailed information about failures.

---------------------------------------------------------
int mb_format_description(
                int verbose,

                int *format,

                char *description,

                int *error);

The function mb_format_description returns a short description of the format in the string *description. The format id *format is first checked for validity. In some cases, formerly valid but now obsolete format id values are mapped to current values. The input values are:
        *format:                MBIO format id

The return values are:
        *format:                MBIO format id

        *format_description:    MBIO format description

        error:          error value

A status value indicating success or failure is returned; the error value argument error passes more detailed information about failures.

---------------------------------------------------------
int mb_format_dimensions(
                int verbose,

                int *format,

                int *beams_bath_max,

                int *beams_amp_max,

                int *pixels_ss_max,

                int *error);

The function mb_format_dimensions returns the maximum numbers of beams and pixels associated with a particular data format. The format id *format is first checked for validity. In some cases, formerly valid but now obsolete format id values are mapped to current values. The input values are:
        *format:                MBIO format id

The return values are:
        *format:                MBIO format id

        *beams_bath_max:        maximum number of bathymetry beams

        *beams_amp_max: maximum number of amplitude beams

        *pixels_ss_max: maximum number of sidescan pixels

        error:          error value

A status value indicating success or failure is returned; the error value argument error passes more detailed information about failures.

---------------------------------------------------------
int mb_format_flags(
                int verbose,

                int *format,

                int *variable_beams,

                int *traveltime,

                int *beam_flagging,

                int *error);

The function mb_format_flags returns flags indicating certain characteristics of the specified data format. The format id *format is first checked for validity. In some cases, formerly valid but now obsolete format id values are mapped to current values. The input values are:
        *format:                MBIO format id

The return values are:
        *format:                MBIO format id

        *variable_beams:        number of beams can vary [boolean]

        *traveltime:    travel time data available [boolean]

        *beam_flagging: beam flagging supported [boolean]

        error:          error value

A status value indicating success or failure is returned; the error value argument error passes more detailed information about failures.

---------------------------------------------------------
int mb_format_source(
                int verbose,

                int *format,

                int *nav_source,

                int *heading_source,

                int *vru_source,

                int *error);

The function mb_format_source returns flags indicating what kinds of data records contain navigation, heading, and attitude values in the specified data format. The format id *format is first checked for validity. In some cases, formerly valid but now obsolete format id values are mapped to current values. The input values are:
        *format:                MBIO format id

The return values are:
        *format:                MBIO format id

        *nav_source:    kind of data records containing

                                navigation

        *heading_source:        kind of data records containing

                                heading

        *vru_source:    kind of data records containing

                                attitude

        error:          error value

A status value indicating success or failure is returned; the error value argument error passes more detailed information about failures.

---------------------------------------------------------
int mb_format_beamwidth(
                int verbose,

                int *format,

                double *beamwidth_xtrack,

                double *beamwidth_ltrack,

                int *error);

The function mb_format_beamwidth returns typical, upper bound values for athwartships and alongtrack beam widths. The format id *format is first checked for validity. In some cases, formerly valid but now obsolete format id values are mapped to current values. The input values are:
        *format:                MBIO format id

The return values are:
        *format:                MBIO format id

        *beamwidth_xtrack:      typical athwartships beam

                                        width [degrees]

        *beamwidth_ltrack:      typical alongtrack beam

                                        width [degrees]

        error:          error value

A status value indicating success or failure is returned; the error value argument error passes more detailed information about failures.

---------------------------------------------------------
int mb_datalist_open(
                int verbose,

                char **datalist,

                char *path,

                int look_processed,

                int *error);

The function mb_datalist_open initializes reading from a datalist tree. The string *path is the path to the top level datalist file to be opened. The value look_processed indicates whether the datalist parsing should look for or ignore processed data files (see the mbprocess and mbdatalist manual pages). The input values are:
        *path:          datalist file to be opened

        look_processed: processed file behavior

                                        0 : unset

                                        1 : ignore processed files

                                        2 : return processed files

The return values are:
        **datalist:     pointer to datalist

                                structure

        error:          error value

A status value indicating success or failure is returned; the error value argument error passes more detailed information about failures.

---------------------------------------------------------
int mb_datalist_read(
                int verbose,

                char *datalist,

                char *path,

                int *format,

                double *weight,

                int *error);

The function mb_datalist_read reads from a datalist tree, attempting to return the path to the next valid swath data file, the corresponding data format id, and a gridding weight (see the mbprocess and mbdatalist manual pages). Information about the datalist tree is embedded in a data structure pointed to by *datalist. The input values are:
        *datalist:      pointer to datalist

                                structure

The return values are:
        *path:          swath data file

        *format:                MBIO format id

        *weight:                mbgrid gridding weight

        error:          error value

A status value indicating success or failure is returned; the error value argument error passes more detailed information about failures.

---------------------------------------------------------
int mb_datalist_close(
                int verbose,

                char **datalist,

                int *error);

The function mb_datalist_close closes an open datalist tree, and deallocates the data structure pointed to by *datalist. The input values are:
        *datalist:      pointer to datalist

                                structure

The return values are:
        error:          error value

A status value indicating success or failure is returned; the error value argument error passes more detailed information about failures.

---------------------------------------------------------
int mb_alloc(
                int verbose,

                char *mbio_ptr,

                char **store_ptr,

                int *error);

The function mb_alloc allocates a data structure for internal storage of swath sonar data and returns a pointer to this structure in *store_ptr. The data structure is specific to the data format identified in the MBIO data structure pointed to by *mbio_ptr. The input values are:
        *mbio_ptr:      pointer to MBIO structure

The return values are:
        **store_ptr:    pointer to storage data

                                structure

        error:          error value

A status value indicating success or failure is returned; the error value argument error passes more detailed information about failures.

---------------------------------------------------------
int mb_deall(
                int verbose,

                char *mbio_ptr,

                char **store_ptr,

                int *error);

The function mb_deall deallocates a format specific swath sonar data structure pointed to by *store_ptr. The input values are:
        *mbio_ptr:      pointer to MBIO structure

        *store_ptr:     pointer to storage data

                                structure

The return values are:
        error:          error value

A status value indicating success or failure is returned; the error value argument error passes more detailed information about failures.

---------------------------------------------------------
int mb_error(
                int error,

                int error,

                char **message);

Given the error value error, mb_format_inf returns a short error message in the string **message. The verbose value controls the standard error output verbosity of the function. The return status value signals success if format is valid and failure otherwise.

---------------------------------------------------------
int mb_navint_add(
                int verbose,

                char *mbio_ptr,

                double time_d,

                double lon,

                double lat,

                int *error);

The function mb_navint_add adds a navigation fix to a circular buffer of navigation values maintained in the MBIO data structure pointed to by *mbio_ptr. This buffer is used to interpolate navigation for data formats where the navigation is asynchronous (where navigation and survey pings come in different data records). The input values are:
        *mbio_ptr:      pointer to MBIO structure

        time_d:         time of navigation fix in seconds

                        since 1/1/70 00:00:00

        lon:            longitude (degrees)

        lat:            latitude (degrees)

The return values are:
        error:          error value

A status value indicating success or failure is returned; the error value argument error passes more detailed information about failures.

---------------------------------------------------------
int mb_navint_interp(
                int verbose,

                char *mbio_ptr,

                double time_d,

                double heading,

                double rawspeed,

                double *lon,

                double *lat,

                double *speed,

                int *error);

The function mb_navint_interp interpolates navigation to the time time_d using a circular buffer of navigation values maintained in the MBIO data structure pointed to by *mbio_ptr. This buffer is used to interpolate navigation for data formats where the navigation is asynchronous (where navigation and survey pings come in different data records). The input values are:
        *mbio_ptr:      pointer to MBIO structure

        time_d:         time of current ping in seconds

                        since 1/1/70 00:00:00

        heading:                heading in degrees

        rawspeed:               speed in km/hr

                                (zero if not known)

The return values are:
        *lon:           longitude (degrees)

        *lat:           latitude (degrees)

        *speed:         speed made good in km/hr

        error:          error value

A status value indicating success or failure is returned; the error value argument error passes more detailed information about failures.

---------------------------------------------------------
int mb_attint_add(
                int verbose,

                char *mbio_ptr,

                double time_d,

                double heave,

                double roll,

                double pitch,

                int *error);

The function mb_attint_add adds an attitude (heave, roll, pitch) data point to a circular buffer of attitude values maintained in the MBIO data structure pointed to by *mbio_ptr. This buffer is used to interpolate attitude for data formats where the attitude is asynchronous (where attitude and survey pings come in different data records). The input values are:
        *mbio_ptr:      pointer to MBIO structure

        time_d:         time of attitude in seconds

                        since 1/1/70 00:00:00

        heave:          heave (meters, up +)

        roll:           roll (degrees, starboard up +)

        pitch:          pitch (degrees, forward up +)

The return values are:
        error:          error value

A status value indicating success or failure is returned; the error value argument error passes more detailed information about failures.

---------------------------------------------------------
int mb_attint_interp(
                int verbose,

                char *mbio_ptr,

                double time_d,

                double *heave,

                double *roll,

                double *pitch,

                int *error);

The function mb_attint_interp interpolates attitude (heave, roll, pitch) data to the time time_d using a circular buffer of attitude values maintained in the MBIO data structure pointed to by *mbio_ptr. This buffer is used to interpolate attitude for data formats where the attitude is asynchronous (where attitude and survey pings come in different data records). The input values are:
        *mbio_ptr:      pointer to MBIO structure

        time_d:         time of current ping in seconds

                        since 1/1/70 00:00:00

The return values are:
        *heave:         heave (meters, up +)

        *roll:          roll (degrees, starboard up +)

        *pitch:         pitch (degrees, forward up +)

        error:          error value

A status value indicating success or failure is returned; the error value argument error passes more detailed information about failures.

---------------------------------------------------------
int mb_hedint_add(
                int verbose,

                char *mbio_ptr,

                double time_d,

                double heading,

                int *error);

The function mb_hedint_add adds a heading point to a circular buffer of heading values maintained in the MBIO data structure pointed to by *mbio_ptr. This buffer is used to interpolate heading for data formats where the heading is asynchronous (where heading and survey pings come in different data records). The input values are:
        *mbio_ptr:      pointer to MBIO structure

        time_d:         time of heading value in seconds

                        since 1/1/70 00:00:00

        heading:                heading (degrees)

The return values are:
        error:          error value

A status value indicating success or failure is returned; the error value argument error passes more detailed information about failures.

---------------------------------------------------------
int mb_hedint_interp(
                int verbose,

                char *mbio_ptr,

                double time_d,

                double *heading,

                int *error);

The function mb_hedint_interp interpolates heading to the time time_d using a circular buffer of heading values maintained in the MBIO data structure pointed to by *mbio_ptr. This buffer is used to interpolate heading for data formats where the heading is asynchronous (where heading and survey pings come in different data records). The input values are:
        *mbio_ptr:      pointer to MBIO structure

        time_d:         time of current ping in seconds

                        since 1/1/70 00:00:00

The return values are:
        *heading:               heading in degrees

        error:          error value

A status value indicating success or failure is returned; the error value argument error passes more detailed information about failures.

---------------------------------------------------------
int mb_get_double(
                double *value,

                char *str,

                int nchar);

The function mb_get_double parses the first nchar characters of the string *str for a floating point value, storing this value as a double in *value.

---------------------------------------------------------
int mb_get_int(
                int *value,

                char *str,

                int nchar);

The function mb_get_int parses the first nchar characters of the string *str for an integer value, storing this value as a int in *value.

---------------------------------------------------------
int mb_get_binary_short(
                int swapped,

                void *buffer,

                short *value);

The function mb_get_binary_short extracts a short int value from the first two bytes pointed to by *buffer. If the boolean swapped is true, the byte order of *value is swapped.

---------------------------------------------------------
int mb_get_binary_int(
                int swapped,

                void *buffer,

                int *value);

The function mb_get_binary_int extracts an int value from the first four bytes pointed to by *buffer. If the boolean swapped is true, the byte order of *value is swapped.

---------------------------------------------------------
int mb_get_binary_float(
                int swapped,

                void *buffer,

                float *value);

The function mb_get_binary_float extracts a float value from the first four bytes pointed to by *buffer. If the boolean swapped is true, the byte order of *value is swapped.

---------------------------------------------------------
int mb_get_binary_double(
                int swapped,

                void *buffer,

                double *value);

The function mb_get_binary_double extracts a double value from the first eight bytes pointed to by *buffer. If the boolean swapped is true, the byte order of *value is swapped.

---------------------------------------------------------
int mb_put_binary_short(
                int swapped,

                short value,

                void *buffer);

The function mb_put_binary_short inserts a short int value into the first two bytes pointed to by *buffer. If the boolean swapped is true, the byte order of value is swapped.

---------------------------------------------------------
int mb_put_binary_int(
                int swapped,

                int value,

                void *buffer);

The function mb_put_binary_int inserts an int value into the first four bytes pointed to by *buffer. If the boolean swapped is true, the byte order of value is swapped.

---------------------------------------------------------
int mb_put_binary_float(
                int swapped,

                float value,

                void *buffer);

The function mb_put_binary_float inserts a float value into the first four bytes pointed to by *buffer. If the boolean swapped is true, the byte order of value is swapped.

---------------------------------------------------------
int mb_put_binary_double(
                int swapped,

                double value,

                void *buffer);

The function mb_put_binary_double inserts a double value into the first eight bytes pointed to by *buffer. If the boolean swapped is true, the byte order of value is swapped.

---------------------------------------------------------
int mb_get_bounds(
                char *text,

                double *bounds);

The function mb_get_bounds parses the string *text and extracts geographic bounds of a rectangular region in the form:
                bounds[0]: minimum longitude

                bounds[1]: maximum longitude

                bounds[2]: minimum latitude

                bounds[3]: maximum latitude

where *text is in the standard GMT bounds form. The longitude and latitude values in *text should separated by a '/' character, and individual values may be represented in decimal degrees or in "dd:mm:ss" form (dd=degrees, mm=minutes, ss=seconds).

double mb_ddmmss_to_degree(
                char *text);

The function mb_ddmmss_to_degree parses the string *text and extracts a decimal longitude or latitude value from a "dd:mm:ss" (dd=degrees, mm=minutes, ss=seconds) value.

---------------------------------------------------------
int mb_takeoff_to_rollpitch(
                int verbose,

                double theta,

                double phi,

                double *alpha,

                double *beta,

                int *error);

The function mb_takeoff_to_rollpitch translates angles from the "takeoff" coordinate reference frame to the "rollpitch" coordinate system. See the discussion of coordinate systems below.

---------------------------------------------------------
int mb_rollpitch_to_takeoff(
                int verbose,

                double alpha,

                double beta,

                double *theta,

                double *phi,

                int *error);

The function mb_rollpitch_to_takeoff translates angles from the "rollpitch" coordinate reference frame to the "takeoff" coordinate system. See the discussion of coordinate systems below.

---------------------------------------------------------
int mb_double_compare(double *a,
                double *b);

The function mb_double_compare is used with the qsort function. This function returns 1 if a > b and -1 if a <= b.

---------------------------------------------------------
int mb_int_compare(
                int *a,

                int *b);

The function mb_int_compare is used with the qsort function. This function returns 1 if a > b and -1 if a <= b.

 

COORDINATE SYSTEMS USED IN MB-SYSTEM

I. Introduction
The coordinate systems described below are used within MB-System for calculations involving the location in space of depth, amplitude, or sidescan data. In all cases the origin of the coordinate system is at the center of the sonar transducers.

II. Cartesian Coordinates
The cartesian coordinate system used in MB-System is a bit odd because it is left-handed, as opposed to the right-handed x-y-z space conventionally used in most circumstances. With respect to the sonar (or the ship on which the sonar is mounted), the x-axis is athwartships with positive to starboard (to the right if facing forward), the y-axis is fore-aft with positive forward, and the z-axis is positive down.

III. Spherical Coordinates
There are two non-traditional spherical coordinate systems used in MB-System. The first, referred to here as takeoff angle coordinates, is useful for raytracing. The second, referred to here as roll-pitch coordinates, is useful for taking account of corrections to roll and pitch angles.

III.1. Takeoff Angle Coordinates

The three parameters are r, theta, and phi, where r is the distance from the origin, theta is the angle from vertical down (that is, from the positive z-axis), and phi is the angle from acrosstrack (the positive x-axis) in the x-y plane. Note that theta is always positive; the direction in the x-y plane is given by phi. Raytracing is simple in these coordinates because the ray takeoff angle is just theta. However, applying roll or pitch corrections is complicated because roll and pitch have components in both theta and phi.


        0 <= theta <= PI/2

        -PI/2 <= phi <= 3*PI/2


        x = rSIN(theta)COS(phi)

        y = rSIN(theta)SIN(phi)

        z = rCOS(theta)


        theta = 0    ---> vertical, along positive z-axis

        theta = PI/2 ---> horizontal, in x-y plane

        phi = -PI/2  ---> aft, in y-z plane with y negative

        phi = 0      ---> port, in x-z plane with x positive

        phi = PI/2   ---> forward, in y-z plane with y positive

        phi = PI     ---> starboard, in x-z plane with x negative

        phi = 3*PI/2 ---> aft, in y-z plane with y negative

III.2. Roll-Pitch Coordinates

The three parameters are r, alpha, and beta, where r is the distance from the origin, alpha is the angle forward (effectively pitch angle), and beta is the angle from horizontal in the x-z plane (effectively roll angle). Applying a roll or pitch correction is simple in these coordinates because pitch is just alpha and roll is just beta. However, raytracing is complicated because deflection from vertical has components in both alpha and beta.


        -PI/2 <= alpha <= PI/2

        0 <= beta <= PI


        x = rCOS(alpha)COS(beta)

        y = rSIN(alpha)

        z = rCOS(alpha)SIN(beta)


        alpha = -PI/2 ---> horizontal, in x-y plane with y negative

        alpha = 0     ---> ship level, zero pitch, in x-z plane

        alpha = PI/2  ---> horizontal, in x-y plane with y positive

        beta = 0      ---> starboard, along positive x-axis

        beta = PI/2   ---> in y-z plane rotated by alpha

        beta = PI     ---> port, along negative x-axis

IV. SeaBeam Coordinates

The per-beam parameters in the SB2100 data format include angle-from-vertical and angle-forward. Angle-from-vertical is the same as theta except that it is signed based on the acrosstrack direction (positive to starboard, negative to port). The angle-forward values are also defined slightly differently from phi, in that angle-forward is signed differently on the port and starboard sides. The SeaBeam 2100 External Interface Specifications document includes both discussion and figures illustrating the angle-forward value. To summarize:


    Port:


        theta = absolute value of angle-from-vertical


        -PI/2 <= phi <= PI/2

        is equivalent to

        -PI/2 <= angle-forward <= PI/2


        phi = -PI/2 ---> angle-forward = -PI/2 (aft)

        phi = 0     ---> angle-forward = 0     (starboard)

        phi = PI/2  ---> angle-forward = PI/2  (forward)


    Starboard:


        theta = angle-from-vertical


        PI/2 <= phi <= 3*PI/2

        is equivalent to

        -PI/2 <= angle-forward <= PI/2


        phi = PI/2   ---> angle-forward = -PI/2 (forward)

        phi = PI     ---> angle-forward = 0     (port)

        phi = 3*PI/2 ---> angle-forward = PI/2  (aft)

V. Usage of Coordinate Systems in MB-System

Some sonar data formats provide angle values along with travel times. The angles are converted to takoff-angle coordinates regardless of the storage form of the particular data format. Currently, most data formats do not contain an alongtrack component to the position values; in these cases the conversion is trivial since phi = beta = 0 and theta = alpha. The angle and travel time values can be accessed using the MBIO function mb_ttimes. All angle values passed by MB-System functions are in degrees rather than radians.

The programs mbbath and mbvelocitytool use angles in take-off angle coordinates to do the raytracing. If roll and/or pitch corrections are to be made, the angles are converted to roll-pitch coordinates, corrected, and then converted back prior to raytracing.

 

BEAM FLAGS USED IN MB-SYSTEM

MB-System uses arrays of 1-byte "beamflag" values to indicate beam data quality. Each beamflag value is actually an eight bit mask allowing fairly complicated information to be stored regarding each bathymetry value. In particular, beams may be flagged as bad, they may be selected as being of special interest, and one or more reasons for flagging or selection may be indicated. This scheme is very similar to the convention used in the HMPS hydrographic data processing package and the SAIC Hydrobat package. The beam selection mechanism is not currently used by any MB-System programs.

The flag and select bits:
  xxxxxx00 => This beam is neither flagged nor selected.
  xxxxxx01 => This beam is flagged as bad and should be ignored.
  xxxxxx10 => This beam has been selected.

Flagging modes:
  00000001 => Flagged because no detection was made by the sonar.
  xxxxx101 => Flagged by manual editing.
  xxxx1x01 => Flagged by automatic filter.
  xxx1xx01 => Flagged because uncertainty exceeds 1 X IHO standard.
  xx1xxx01 => Flagged because uncertainty exceeds 2 X IHO standard.
  x1xxxx01 => Flagged because footprint is too large
  1xxxxx01 => Flagged by sonar as unreliable.

Selection modes:
  00000010 => Selected, no reason specified.
  xxxxx110 => Selected as least depth.
  xxxx1x10 => Selected as average depth.
  xxx1xx10 => Selected as maximum depth.
  xx1xxx10 => Selected as location of sidescan contact.
  x1xxxx10 => Selected, spare.
  1xxxxx10 => Selected, spare.

 

SEE ALSO

mbsystem(l), mbformat(l)

 

BUGS

What could go wrong in a mere 204,289 lines of code?
Let us know...


 

Index

NAME
VERSION
DESCRIPTION
AUTHORSHIP
DATA TERMINOLOGY
VERSION 5 CHANGES
OVERVIEW
SUPPORTED SWATH SONAR SYSTEMS
SUPPORTED FORMATS
FUNCTION STATUS AND ERROR CODES
FUNCTION VERBOSITY
INITIALIZATION AND CLOSING FUNCTIONS
LEVEL 1 FUNCTIONS
LEVEL 2 FUNCTIONS
LEVEL 3 FUNCTIONS
MISCELLANEOUS FUNCTIONS
COORDINATE SYSTEMS USED IN MB-SYSTEM
BEAM FLAGS USED IN MB-SYSTEM
SEE ALSO
BUGS


Last Updated: 3 June 2013